Crohn's Disease Analysis

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Crohn’s Disease (CD) has been influencing the lives of more and more people worldwide, and it is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). More frequent in women, it affects 780,000 Americans (CCFA, 2014). Crohn’s Disease is progressive, chronic, and painful, and it can be located at any point within the gastrointestinal tract, though most frequently within the last part of the small intestine - the ileum -, and/or the colon (Abraham & Cho, 2009). The first documentation of Chron’s Disease was by an Italian physician, Giovanni Battista Morgagni, who noted that a patient was suffering from a chronic, debilitating ailment involving abdominal pain, fever, and bloody diarrhea in 1769. Upon the patient’s death, an autopsy revealed transmural …show more content…
Active smokers are more likely to develop Chron’s Disease, while past smokers are more likely to have Ulcerative Colitis. Smoking increases the risk of developing CD by more than twice (Lashner, 2013). There is also a possible north-south gradient; people in higher altitudes seem to develop Crohn’s Disease more often than those in those in lower latitudes (Lashner, 2013). This may be due to genetics, but it’s possible that the populations being subjected to different climates or additional environmental factors affect one’s likelihood to develop the disease. Other aspects include a medical history of the mumps; high fat, polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega-6 fatty acids, and meats intake; and the utilization of the oral contraception pill (Lashner, 2013). Current research at Case Western Reserve University has identified uncontrolled vitamin A as a harmful participant in causing the disease; further evidence on effect of diet on the development of CD. This research identified a protein called ISX which balances the metabolism of vitamin A, and which when an organism lacks it, causes inflammation of the gut in those with beta-carotene rich diets. This is because ISX affects the activation of the genes which controls the pathway between the absorption and distribution of vitamin A, and thus when it’s gone, the gene is always off; thus, encouraging immune cells within the gut to “overreact” to the …show more content…
Treatment for CD is mostly symptom management, as about 65% of people in remission will have at least one relapse in the subsequent five years (Ha & Khalil, 2015). First, eating and other habits such as smoking and the use of oral contraception which are associated with the development of the disease are ceased, and a diet of high fibers and fruits is encouraged. Next, pharmacological remedies are utilized. Medications associated with anti-inflammatory and therapeutic properties are employed. These drugs, such as corticosteroids, budesonide, or mesalazine are used to incite remission of symptoms – corticosteroids, however, are not a long-term solution due to the possibility of drug tolerance. Surgical management is also a possible treatment method for those who don’t improve with medicinal treatment. It’s also used to resolve intestinal obstruction, malnutrition, and to fix abscesses and perforations caused by sepsis. This can be done utilizing open-surgery or laparoscopy to resect pieces of the intestines or repair tears and abscesses. Surgery, however, doesn’t guarantee complete remission either, as there is still a high chance of recurrence (Ha & Khalil,

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