Criticism And Preference Utilitarianism

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Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism, a theory formed and made popular in the 18th and 19th century by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, is a form of consequential theories in which humans believe that our actions are based on our happiness. Happiness is what deters humans from acting in what they believe to be a good or bad manner. According to “Living Under God’s Law: Christian Ethics”, the one goal that is sought out is pleasure. If actions cause harm or do not promote happiness, then the action is considered wrong (Fox, 1912). This theory is a system is one in which actions can be measured on how good or bad it is by how much pleasure or pain is caused from it. The issue that lies within this theory is whether or not people should measure how pleasing an act is based on the outcome or the ethical rules that may already be in place. The two founders believed that no one purposefully committed actions with the intent of causing pain. However, no one can truly know for sure if that is a true statement.

Preference utilitarianism
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Preference utilitarianism is different from classic utilitarianism because it doesn’t not entail promoting the actions that give pleasure. But rather, actions are promoted based on a person’s interests. This theory is criticized because a person’s choices may not be based on the correct information or all of the information is not available. A person can then deny what they think is really morally good (Sinnott-Armstrong,

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