Critically discuss the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory system

1913 Words Sep 7th, 2014 8 Pages
The objective of this report is to critically explain the physiological effects of exercise on the human respiratory system and cardiovascular system. To begin with, I will explain the two systems, their specific functions and how they inter-relate. I will then go on to analyse the effects of exercise on the two systems by looking at the way in which the body deals with an increased workload, and any health issues that may affect this.
Cardiovascular system
This system is responsible for pumping blood and oxygen around the body. It is a network made up of blood vessels that transport carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs. The heart is an organ so needs a constant supply of oxygen. This is supplied by a separate network of blood
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Due to the absence of supporting cartilidge and the size of the bronchioles, they are exposed to the possibility of collapsing and becoming blocked
- (cited in Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry)
- Skeletal muscle and fibrous tissue is found in the diaphragm enabling it to contract and relax

Nervous Tissue
- Sino-Atrian node is made up of nervous tissue enabling it to send electrical currents to make the heart contract
Nerve sensors in the muscles of the respiratory system receive impulses from the brain to control breathing. The brain detects oxygen/CO2 levels in the body so without this type of tissue, the respiratory system would not know when it needed to speed up or slow down
(cited in National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 2014)

Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration is a process in which the energy in glucose is turned into Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). This is the energy cells need for the body to function. The cardiovascular and respiratory system both work together to aid this process by suppling the oxygen and glucose, and by removing carbon dioxide (gas exchange).

Cellular respiration occurs in one of two ways; aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration occurs when there is a sufficent amount of oxygen in the cells. Glucose is broken down by oxygen; turning it into energy. Carbon dioxide and water are produced as waste

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