Critical Analysis Of Eric Anderson's Theory Of Inclusive Masculinity

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Eric Anderson’s theory of inclusive masculinity has been marked as a new viewpoint to theorizing contemporary masculinities today. Anderson has been renowned for exceptional sociological recognition in this field as he critically initiated the ‘next generation’ of masculinity contemporary scholarship (O’Neill,). Anderson’s theoretical development of inclusive masculinity is recognised by many as an empirical replacement for Connell’s hegemonic masculinity. The influence of Anderson and his established inclusive perspective cannot be underestimated, it is highlighted by his work being adapted and endorsed by fellow theorists of masculinity including Michael Messner and Michael Kimmel who are too acknowledged as outstanding scholars in the area. …show more content…
The theoretical development of Connell’s gender order is influential here as it has resulted in the establishment of sports that are perceived as feminine and masculine. It is worthwhile to note that from early on, men have become dependent on spots that demonstrate and exaggerate the differences between the two sexes phenotypes, this undoubtedly enables them to enhance their orthodox masculinity while also allowing them to recognise femininity as inferior to masculinity.(Anderson,2009) Anderson and McGuire(2010) state that despite various outcomes of sport participation for men in Britain, the fact that sport serves as a institution is primarily organised around ‘the political project of defining acceptable forms of masculinity’. Rugby, along with football is recognised as leading sports that assist in defining masculinity among youth and university aged men. Continuously, Rugby represents in many cultures as a prominent reproducer of gendered prejudices of the differences between men and women in which male participation enables men to adhere to, value and reproduce orthodox ideals of masculinity as men aspire to show strong, tough and powerful attributes. Rugby tends to be universally perceived as a sport that is largely characterised by homophobia, misogyny and …show more content…
Such misogyny behaviour can be defined as the sexual objectification of women within a sport institution which allows teammates and coaches masculinity to be expressed. Anderson and Mcguire(2010) highlight that a typical accepted sport such as rugby has shown to psychologically dominate and undermine women as they as they face discriminating verbal abuse. However, research heightens that this is not the case among the university rugby team analysed in this study. Teammates here show to go against and contest the orthodox ideals of masculinity in which they demonstrate effectively an optimistic change in attitudes and behaviour concerning women. McGuire typifies such in recording that the word ‘bitch’ is rarely used amongst team members. Not only this but other common misogynistic expression and behaviour is almost never used. Participant of the study Ben stated that ‘I would never say that’ in an interview, supporting the fact that this harassment is not as common today and is certainly discouraged in relation to contemporary sport.(Anderson and Mcguire,2010) Adams et al. (2010) too discusses the misogynist behaviour among not only teammates but also their coaches that traditionally occurred within sport. Anderson highlights that this study suggests that coaches establish orthodox

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