Criminological Research : A Heavy Presence Of Studies Testing Social Control
Criminological research has a heavy presence of studies testing social bond theory. One such study, done by Michael Cretacci, tested religion as a social control. Throughout the article Cretacci claimed that Hirschi originally had data on adding religion as a social control, but for some unknown reason excluded it from the theory (Cretacci, 2003). Cretacci used that missing piece of history to see the effect that religion has on violence across developmental stages. In order to test the relationship, Cretacci analyzed the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (“Add Health”), which is a public-use data set meant to represent youth from across the country. He categorized questions from Add Health into the different social bonds from Hirschi’s theory— attachment, commitment/involvement, and belief. In the end, Cretacci (2003) found that religion had no effect and that delinquent peers were proven the most important variable in the research.
Cretacci (2003) included both the history of social control theory and a recap of the theory’s main points in order to justify his reasoning for the study. He began with the history of religion as a social bond. It is noted that there are conflicting findings throughout history, especially with big names in sociology. Emile Durkheim and Max Weber thought that religion played a key role in reducing deviance because it strengthened the social control for individuals (Cretacci, 2003). Cesare…