Crime Pattern Theory And Deterrence Theory

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Crime Pattern Theory (Brantingham and Brantingham 2008) examines people’s activity patterns, especially when traveling to, or gathering at particular places, in terms of ‘paths, nodes and edges’; and whether places are ‘crime generators’ (many crimes happen there simply because lots of people are passing through, some of whom happen to be opportunistic criminals) or ‘crime attractors’ (criminals are specifically attracted there because of features that make crime less risky, less effort or more rewarding).
Broken Windows is a specific theory (Wilson and Kelling 1982) that suggests that if we fail to maintain the environment (for example by leaving broken windows unrepaired, or allowing litter to build up and public places to become dirty and
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While Choice theory says that criminals are rational beings who evaluate available information to decide whether a crime is attractive and worthwhile, Deterrence theory, on the other hand, stresses the idea that an individual’s choice is influenced by the fear of punishment. Deterrence is the act of preventing a criminal act before it occurs, through the threat of punishment and sanctions. Rooted in the classical perspective, deterrence theory focuses on the following …show more content…
T., 1986).
Deterrence is at the center of neoclassical thinking. Why are crime rates so high in the United States? Using the deterrence perspective, one could argue hypothetically that they are high because many criminals believe that many police officers will not make an arrest even if they are aware of a crime; therefore, there is only a small chance of being arrested for committing a particular crime. In addition, the perpetrator may believe that, even if arrested, there is a high probability of receiving a lenient punishment.
How, then, can we reduce high rates of criminal behaviour? From a deterrence perspective, crime rates should decline if there is an increase in the rates of arrest, conviction, and severity of punishment. Studies have indicated three significant findings, however:
1. Where there have been increases in police activity, crime rates are not necessarily reduced; nor are crime rates reduced by increasing the number of police in a community.
2. In a famous Kansas City, Missouri, police study, the absence or presence of police patrols did not affect the crime

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