Creation of Silicon Chips Essay

1275 Words Apr 16th, 2015 6 Pages
Creation of Silicon Chips

D'yara L.Williams
South Carolina State University
CS 304 - Introduction to Computer Organizatikns & Architecture
Dr. Y. Kim
Feburary 25, 2015 Did you know that microprocessors today have more than 30 layers of complex circuits compared to the 5 layered circuit discovered in 1971? Silicon chips are also known as a monolithic integrated circuits, die, or processors. They’re miniature electronic brains that are everywhere in the electronic world, which processes data in the form of electrical currents traveling along a circuit. The natural semi-conductor of integrated chips is manufactured using sand. Beach sand contains a high percentage of the principal ingredient,
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To begin with, before a chip is made engineers are to ensure the accuracy of the specifications by creating a design or blueprint. The starting material for a silicon chip is sand which has a high percentage of silica. This can be transformed into a semi conductor which has an excellent conductor or insulator of electricity with minor amount of impurities added. The element silicon dioxide is purified to less than one alien Atom per billion. The Czochralski process ensures removal of the crystal lattice cylinder, called an ingot. This silicon ingot has a diameter of 300 millimetres and weighs about 100 kilograms. The end is then cut into individual silicon discs called wafers with each about one millimeter thick. The wafers are polished to a flawless, mirror smooth surface. This way first then undergo a process known as photo lithography which in Prince a specific pattern on a wafer. It starts by applying a light sensitive, its resistant material called photoresist onto the wafer surface. The photoresist is hardened and parts of it are exposed to the ultra light, making it suitable. The light passes through a mess similar to a stencil like pattern for each layer of the chip which is being use during the fabrication process and then through the lands to shrink and print patterns on each layer of every chip of the wafer. A chemical process removes the soul of

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