Cranioplasty Essay

Cranioplasty is the method of treatment of skull defects; it is required to protect the underlying brain, correct major aesthetic deformities or both (Pompili et al., 1998). Today, three-dimensional (3D) models of anatomical structures can be constructed based on anatomical information from scanning data coming from computerized tomography (CT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is used to 3D modelling of soft tissues and computerized tomography (CT) for Hard tissues (i.e. bone) of the human body.

The fact is face is a symmetrical structure, so abnormalities on one side of the face or skull have a mirror image portion of the face that is normal. By comparing the normal side of the face to the defect, an accurate reposition or replacement
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This methodology can be employed to assess the deformation of an implant in its anatomical setting with respect to variables in the design features and various materials have been used for the treatment of such defects Titanium alloys, Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and autologous bone grafts. In addition, the design support databases were constructed to deal with the problems of asymmetrical anatomy and complex defects which include multiple injuries and the defects of being beyond the midline of the skull (called beyond-midlinedefects).

The most popular one is the mirroring technique that duplicates the healthy counterpart section from the opposite side of the skull. Although this method has many applications [13, 14, 19, 28], it uses the assumption of the ideal bilateral symmetry of the human skull [25]. Besides, mirroring is suitable only for the unilateral damage, and is unable to deal with bilateral defects. The another method uses surface interpolation, such as a Be´zier surface [5], to approximate the cranial hole and reconstruct a fitting surface. This surface method is an approximation

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