Country Classifications and Urbanization Processes Essay examples
Urbanization, meaning the increase in the proportion of the total population living in urban areas, has been a worldwide phenomenon since 1950 (Pacione), particularly due to the rapid economic development after the second world, but such a process has existed for centuries, as early as in the 18th and 19th century when the industrial revolution took place in Europe. Even so, the urbanization processes in First World and Third World are different. This essay will focus on and compare the characteristics of the urbanization process in First World and Third World, from the 16th century till now.
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In this regard, the time experiencing the stages of urban cycles in First and Third World is one of the major differences in their urbanization processes, making them in different stages in the urban cycles today.
Another difference is that since the urbanization takes place at different time period, the situation and urban problems faced by the contemporary Third World and First World are different. In the past, “Europe and North America enjoyed superior natural endowments and higher absolute levels of development, attributes which moderated the problems associated with rapid urbanization.” (Kasarda; Crenshaw) However, in most countries of Third World today, industrialization often lags behind urbanization, leading to the problem of overurbanization. The urban market is saturated. Peasants flocking to the cities fail to find jobs, leading to more urban and social problems. Meanwhile, since governments have to tackle these social problems brought by overurbanization at the expense of using resources for the economic development, the urbanization process and economic growth are retarded.
During the urbanization