The instructor may, by way of introduction, make a few comments regarding the importance and relevance of understanding the historical background of a profession and then briefly highlight the important points in Chapter One, adding any statements from his or her own background plus any appropriate comments.
The major points of this chapter (which could be covered in an instructor’s introduction of the chapter) are as follows:
1. Occupations, including counseling, develop because there is a need.
2. The need for such personal assistance - advice, guidance, counseling - has existed, and in various ways been attended to, over the ages.
3. Many of the well-known
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* Grew out of the guidance movement, in opposition to traditional psychotherapy. * Guidance * The process of helping people makes important choices that affect their lives. * Has more of a historical significance than present-day usage. * Guidance focuses on helping individuals choose what they value most, while counseling helps them make changes. * Early work in guidance occurred in schools and career centers where students were helped to make decisions, such as career choices. An unequal relationship was between an adult and student. * Helps to gain an understanding of self and own world through guidance, such as from parents, ministers, scout leaders, and coaches. * Psychotherapy * Therapy initially focused on serious internal conflicts. * Emphasized past more than present, insight more than change, detachment of the therapist, and the therapist as an expert. * Long-term relationships (20 to 40 sessions over 6 months to 2 years) focused on reconstructive change. [Short-term relationship = 8 to 12 sessions over less than 6 months.] * Seen as more of an inpatient treatment rather than outpatient. * In more modern times, psychotherapy and counseling have become blurred with professions who determine whether the client receives counseling or psychotherapy. * Counseling * In 2010, 29 counseling associations accepted a definition