Corruption Essay

1161 Words Jul 3rd, 2014 5 Pages
Introduction
Corruption is a symptom of weakness in the political, social, legal and economic systems of a country. An effective litmus test to assist in determining the difference between corrupt and non-corrupt actions is whether activities are carried out in an open, transparent, and accountable manner for, even where corruption is widespread; its practitioners strive to keep it hidden from public view.

Forms of Corruption
Corruption takes a variety of forms including bribery, nepotism, patronage, theft of state assets, evasion of taxes, diversion of revenues and electoral fraud. Below are the forms of corruption.

Bribery and Grease Payments Bribery refers to payments sought by public officials or used by private agents in
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Bureaucratic corruption has been described as a function of the size of the rewards and penalties under an official’s control, the discretion of the official in their allocation and, the accountability of officials for decisions and actions taken. As discretion increases and accountability declines, the potential for corruption grows. Further, where the wages of public servants are low or there exists a large disparity between public and private sector wages, public servants may be more tempted to engage in corrupt practices.

Political Corruption: Political corruption differs from bureaucratic corruption in that it is perpetrated by political leaders or elected Officials who have been vested with public authority and who bear the responsibility of representing the public interests. It may involve the trading of influence, granting of favors, or, could extend to irregularities in campaign financing and electoral fraud.

Causes of Corruption
Corruption flourishes where institutions of governance are weak, where government’s policy and regulatory regime provide scope for it, and where oversight institutions (e.g. parliament, judiciary, civil society) are marginalized or have become corrupted. It is particularly likely to occur in the interaction between the public and private spheres. However, it should be emphasized that few countries consciously set out to encourage corruption. The causes of corruption are highly contextual, rooted in

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