Correctional Treatment Programs Have Effectively Reduced Recidivism Rates

978 Words Oct 16th, 2016 4 Pages
Scholarly research has demonstrated the many correctional treatment programs have effectively reduced recidivism rates (Cullen & Gendreau, 2000). Although the concepts of rehabilitation and correctional treatment were dominant throughout the majority of the twentieth century, they have been subject to much debate and criticism. Such controversy can be seen when examining the three different shifts in thinking about offenders and how such views have influenced correctional treatment models.
In the early 1800s, “penitentiaries” were established as offenders were removed from society in order to transform their behaviors by placing them in a more structured environment (Cullen & Gendreau, 2000). Beginning in the 1800s, competition began amongst two penitentiary designs; a solitary model, known as the Pennsylvania model, and the Auburn model (Cullen & Gendreau, 2000). The Pennsylvania model viewed solitary confinement as the means for stopping corruption and criminal behavior by removing the offenders from society and isolating them to avoid criminal association. In contrast, the Auburn model operated on the basis that offenders could be reformed through religion and daily labor. The Auburn model and the practice of reforming prisoners dominated throughout the latter 1800s, as the aim of prison discipline was to reform the offenders, not to inflict suffering. This concept of the “new penology” was developed at a conference in Cincinnati in 1870 and embraced the notion that…

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