Copd : The Common Chronic Disease Essay

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1.Introduction

COPD is the common chronic disease with the high rate of morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that COPD will become the third leading cause of death in 2020.1 The most noticeable symptoms of this disease are productive cough, shortness of breath and limited exercise capacity. While the main obvious pathophysiological hallmark of COPD is Expiratory Flow limitation which causes acute dynamic lung hyperinflation, dyspnea is increasingly implicated as the primary symptom causes exercise limitation and skeletal muscle deconditioning as a result of avoidance activity. Hyperinflation, refers to an increase in lung volume above the resting volume due to air trapping, is the crucial consequence of mechanical restriction of this obstructive disease.2 Even though breathing at high volume level allows to generate higher tidal volume, it causes some detrimental effects like the functional weakness of inspiratory muscles and restriction of normal tidal volume (VT) expansion. These could be reinforced when there is an increased ventilatory demand and a decreased expiratory timing, e.g. during exercise that leads to further air trapping and dynamic hyperinflation (DH).2,3 DH is defined as a variable enhancement in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) above the relaxation volume (VR) of the respiratory system.4 A majority of scientific papers have stated DH as the major cause of dyspnea that occurs when end-expiratory flow (EFL) is worsened during bronchospasm or…

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