Cool And Racism Analysis

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Introduction
Origin of the term “Cool”
The term “Cool” was first used by black culture, especially young black people (Bird and Tapp, 2008). Lester Young, a black tenor saxophonist introduced the term (Bird and Tapp, 2008). Young played with Billie Holliday from 1920 to 1950, he died in 1959 due to alcohol and malnutrition (Bird and Tapp, 2008). From Shapiro (1999), at the beginning the term was used by black Jazz Musicians to confront racism through the consumption of drugs, alcohol, and slang (Runyan, Noh and Mosier, 2013). By that time the term “Cool” referred to approval and reverence (Vuolo, 2013). Additionally, by that time the term had a meaning for “Rebellious” and “Illicit”, someone who smoked tobacco, and got caught consuming Marihuana would be considered a “Cool guy” (Bird and Tapp, 2008). In 1924 Anna Lee Chisholm,
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19). In the 1950s white bohemians, the “Beats” introduced the term “Cool” in American literature (Bird and Tapp, 2008). Norma Mailer, said in his essay “The White Negro” that becoming a “Hipster” with a particular taste for jazz, sex, drugs, and slangs was the only way to confront the conformity of the 1950’s in the United States (Bird and Tapp, 2008). During the 1960s and 1970s arose the US liberal movement and counterculture, empowered by the anti-Vietnam manifestation and consumptions of drugs (Bird and Tapp, 2008).
Conceptualization of Cool From Keller and Kalmus (2009), today, the term cool is commonly used among young population (Runyan, Noh and Mosier, 2013). Cool can be refer to identify something desirable, up-to date, and suitable (Runyan, Noh and Mosier, 2013). Additionally, the word can be used to to define something stylish, innovative, original, authentic, desirable, and unique (Bird and Tapp,

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