Comparison Of Frog And Songbird Mating Calls

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Contrast and Comparison between Frog and Songbird Mating Calls
By the law of the nature, most creatures seek to survive and reproduce. In other words, they reproduce to survive or to keep their species on living. In this research paper, I would compare and contrast the advertisement calls for mating between frogs and songbirds and talk about how the production of mating calls is related to Tinbergen’s four questions.
Both anurans and passerines have calls. Also, males usually produce the mating calls to be selected by females. To be selected, their songs should be differentiated from their neighbors or other species, and localized. However, there are some differences between these mating vocalizations of anurans and passerines. For example,
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They phonate clearly as the air moves through the syrinx from their lungs. Moreover, unlike frogs, songbirds have two separate passageways; they can control these two separate sound sources independently. They also have human-like vocal fold vibrations (Beckers 2006). Besides, songbirds not only use syrinx, but also they use other parts of their bodies. Songbirds are able to adjust the fundamental frequency by using their head, neck, and beak. They lower the frequency as they extend their necks. On the other way, when songbirds tuck their heads down, the frequency increases. Furthermore, they open their beaks to increase frequency and close them to lower the frequency. Although the basic structures of the air sac and syrinx are different, frogs and birds can phonate clearly by letting the air flow from their lungs through air sac and syrinx. However, on their advertisement songs, frogs and songbirds both have acoustic …show more content…
In their first year, male frogs do not produce mating calls. However, in their second year when they are physically mature, they begin to join in the chorus. Then, in their third year, they die (Zelick 1999). In contrast, birds have human-like learning processes for their advertisement songs. Male songbirds first listen and memorize a tutor song. Then, they create a pattern in their brain and practice the song. The song they practice to crystallize is called “plastic song.” By comparing their phonation to the pattern or tutor song and improving the songs, they are able to produce stable and clear advertisement songs. Also, their brain regions, which are the motor pathway and the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), contributes to song production and learning. The motor pathway consists of HVC and RA (robust nucleus of the arcopallium). And, HVC and RA controls the motor nuclei. Thus, they allow birds to phonate by using the syrinx and respiratory muscles. Additionally, in AFP, Area X and LMAN (lateral subdivision of the magnocellular nucleus of the thalamus), help songbirds crystalize their songs. Particularly, LMAN reduce the possibility that adult songbirds learn new songs. Besides, it enables songbirds to keep their memories for already learned songs from atrophying after deafening (Wada 1999). Likewise, male birds use their brains to learn a song. Thus, songbirds learning a song remind of humans acquiring

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