Contemporary Theories of Motivation Essay

1011 Words Nov 11th, 2008 5 Pages
Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort to organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. This need is the internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. Motivation is also the process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. The concept of motivation refers to internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can act as inducements to action. Individuals differ in their basic motivational drive and the level of motivations varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times.
Since individuals differ in their motivation drive, there is not right or wrong
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The theory focuses on three things: 1) Efforts and performance relationship, 2) Performance and reward relationship, 3) Rewards and personal goal relationship.

Valance x Expectancy ↓ Motivation

Action

Results

Satisfaction in form of Rewards

David McClelland’s three-need theory recognizes that the need for achievement, power, and affiliation are major motives at work.
• Need for achievement (N-Ach): The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed.
• Need for power (N-Pow): The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
• Need for affiliation (N-Affil): The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
The importance of each of these needs will vary from one person to another. If you can determine the importance of each of these needs to an individual, it will help you decide how to influence that individual. McClelland asserted that a person’s needs are influenced by their cultural background and life experiences. He also asserted that the majority of these needs can be classified as the needs for affiliation, achievement or power. A person’s motivation and effectiveness can be increased through an environment, which provides them with their ideal mix of each of the three needs (N-Ach, N-Pow and/or N-Affil).

Another contemporary theory is JCM five core job dimensions.
1. Skill variety: the degree to

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