Essay about Contemporary Applications of Schools in Psychology

8486 Words Nov 11th, 2013 34 Pages
INTRODUCTION
Psychology evolved out of both philosophy and biology. Throughout psychology's history, a number of different schools of thought have formed to explain human thought and behavior. These schools of thought often rise to dominance for a period of time. While these schools of thought are sometimes perceived as competing forces, each perspective has contributed to our understanding of psychology.
Some of the major schools of thought in psychology are Structuralism, Functionalism, Gestalt psychology, Behaviorism, Psychoanalysis and Humanistic Psychology.
Each school in psychology followed a certain viewpoint or perspective that defined it and its research and treatment methods. From each distinctive viewpoint there arose
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The Field of Applied Psychology:
Cognitive Psychology, Educational Psychology, and Counseling Psychology: Researchers working within the field of cognition and attribution ask people to report on their mental processes, for instance, to say why they made a particular choice or how they arrived at a judgment. Metacognition is defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing". It includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving (Metcalfe & Shimamura, 1994). Metamemory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition (Dunlosky & Bjork, n.d.).
Without the method of introspection, metacognition and metamemory would not be possible. It is used by educational psychologists and counselors who help children develop metacognitive strategies for decision-making and problem-solving and metamemory strategies suited to a particular student to improve retention and recall of information during an examination.
Metacognitive strategies training can consist of coaching the students in thinking skills that will allow them to monitor their own learning. Examples of strategies that can be taught to students are word analysis skills, active reading strategies, listening skills, organizational skills and creating mnemonic devices.
Clinical Psychology: Introspection is also used in the field of

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