Child Abuse Introduction

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Child abuse occurs in every society in the world. Child abuse and neglect has both short-term and long-term negative effects. Physical and emotional child abuse involves mistreatment, neglect, sexual abuse and verbal misuse. They have detrimental effects on child mental health, physical health and psychological well-being. The aim of the paper was to investigate the consequences of the physical and emotional child abuse and preventive strategies that can prevent these acts. Physical and emotional child abuse is associated with injuries, psychological disorders, impairment in the brain development and poor school performance. Child abuse can be prevented by implementing primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies.
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However, it is not possible to distinguish or separate the types of impacts. Physical consequences of child abuse and neglect such as damage to the brain structure can cause psychological implications such as emotional difficulties and cognitive delays. Psychological problems such as depression and anxiety are manifested as high-risk behaviors that can in turn cause long-term physical health problems (Gibb, Chelminski & Zimmerman, 2007).
Child mistreatment has consequences for the victims that last lifetime. Children and infants are vulnerable to the physical impact of abuse. Childhood physical abuse is associated with behavioral and emotional problems that may persist into adulthood. It can directly lead to physical injuries, neurological damage, pain, and disability. Physical and emotional abuse are also linked with educational difficulties and aggressive behaviors. Physical abuse causes various types of injuries especially when the child is exposed to this form of abuse before they are three years age. One way that infants have been physical abuse is through shaking which can cause bleeding, bruising and bleeding in the brain. The consequences of shaking an infant can range from irritability or vomiting to more severe effects such as respiratory distress, concussions, seizure and even death. Approximately two-thirds subdural hemorrhages
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Complex trauma affects brain development and may interfere with the capacity of the child to integrate emotional, sensory and cognitive information. Consequently, a child exhibits over-reactive responses to stress (Gibb, Chelminski & Zimmerman, 2007).
Physical and emotional child abuse causes learning difficulties or poor academic achievement. Abusing and neglecting a child during early years affect their developmental capacities especially in critical areas of language and speech. Boglut (2015) contends that maltreated, abused and neglected children achieve poorer marks in schools as compared to children who have not been abused even when background factors are taken into account.
Child sexual abuse causes much suffering during adulthood. Quadara (2015) asserts that child sexual abuse is common for both girls and boys. However, girls are more vulnerable to sexual abuse than boys. Other factors that increase the risk for sexual abuse include age, disabilities, low socio-economic status, parental impairment and maternal history of childhood sexual abuse. According to Elklit (2015) child, sexual abuse is associated with social, physical and psychological health problems. Depression, post-traumatic stress disorders, and substance abuse are common among child sexual abuse adult

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