Confucianism Case Study

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Register to read the introduction… New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths. A. The core beliefs about desire, suffering, and the search for enlightenment preached by the historic Buddha and recorded by his followers into sutras and other scriptures were, in part, a reaction to the Vedic beliefs and rituals dominant in South Asia. Buddhism changed over time as it spread throughout Asia – first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, and then through the efforts of missionaries and merchants, and the establishment of educational institutions to promote its core teachings. B. Confucianism’s core beliefs and writings originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius and were elaborated by key disciples who sought to promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China, including the rulers. C. In the major Daoist writings, the core belief of balance between humans and nature assumed that the Chinese political system would be altered indirectly. Daosim also influenced the development of Chinese culture: medical theories and practices, poetry, metallurgy, …show more content…
Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites: deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, silted rivers. B. External problems resulted from the security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasion: between Han China and the Xiongnu, between the Gupta and the White Huns, between the Romans and their northern and eastern neighbors.
Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange I. Land and water resources became the basis for transregional trade, communication, and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere. A. Many factors, including the climate and location of the routes, the typical trade goods, and the ethnicity of people involved, shaped the distinctive features of a variety of trade routes: Eurasian Silk Roads, Trans-Saharan caravan routes, Indian Ocean sea lanes, Mediterranean sea lanes II. New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange. A. New technologies permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes: yokes, saddles, stirrups, horses, oxen, llamas,

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