Church Union Formation

2134 Words 9 Pages
To understand why the conflict between the church and state aroused, we need to go back to the origins of this union. Otto I, son of the Henry I, Duke of Saxony was able to seize a large amount of land from the east of Elbe River, comprising Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, all the way to North Italy and parts of southern France. Thus due to his aid to the Church, Pope John XII crowned Otto I as an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (406 Bentley, Ziegler). This alliance helped to gain control over the German territories, it benefited Otto, since he «strengthened his power and decreased the power of the duchies» (Dill, Heer, Zophy). Instead of relying on dukes, Otto I was appointing bishops and abbots, as his royal vassals to help to rule …show more content…
But he was too young to govern, so Innocent III was able to take the power in his hands. Authority shifted once again from secular to the spiritual power. Innocent III papacy is truly a zenith of Churches influence. But as Frederick II was getting older, he started to object church’s control and secular vs spiritual issues started to arouse again. One of those issues took place because of the fifth crusade. Contrary to the fact that Frederick II did promise to go on the crusade, during his coronation, he continually avoided and postponed the actual crusade. As a result, on one of those crusades, papal legate Pelagius did not compromise with Ayyubid sultan Al-Kamil 's on the war outcome and crusade ended in 1221, because of the Roman Empire defeat. In the eyes of the papacy, Frederick II was responsible for the loss. In 1225, Frederick II agreed to launch another crusade, but due to internal instability within the empire, marriage to Yolande of Jerusalem and possible illness, he failed to enter the crusade. As the result of it, he was excommunicated by the Pope Gregory IX. (World Public Library). Conversely, of being excommunicated, Frederick II launched the crusade of 1228 - 1229 by himself in which he was able to negotiate the return of Jerusalem. The pope even excommunicated him again. In 1230 Pope Gregory IX lifted the excommunication, but only …show more content…
During five hundred of years, the constant struggle between the church and the state affected the policy and the governance. If in the beginning, excommunication has been seen as a great threat to the monarch, the religious power would start to decline with the pope removal to Avignon and later, the Great Schism. Martin Luther Reformation practically diminished any political power the Church can have. Christianity could no longer oppose the head of the State. Thus, the secular vs spiritual struggle finally ended with Church losing its political

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