Comprehensive assignment Essay

2435 Words Apr 30th, 2014 10 Pages
1. (5 pts) Describe the metabolic process providing your energy while you were walking (at an easy pace) before the bee stung you. Include which molecules are being consumed.

The metabolic process providing my energy while I was walking at an easy pace is aerobic metabolism. During aerobic metabolism, mitochondria absorb from the surrounding cytoplasm these molecules: ADP, phosphate ions, O2, and organic substances like pyruvate. These molecules go through the citric acid cycle. The electron transport chain is also involved to create ATP. For each molecule of pyruvate that goes into the citric acid cycle, the cell gains 17 ATP molecules. Glycogen reserves can also be used and converted to glucose. Glycolysis breaks down glucose
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This causes the transmembrane potential to drop down to -70 mV and hyperpolarize. This hyperpolarization decreases neurotransmitter release. The adjacent cell is then aware that the photoreceptor has absorbed a photon. A specific ganglion cell keeps track of a specific portion of the visual field. Rods are also called M cells and give the brain information about a general location of received photons and light rather than very specific information. Cones are also called P cells and can be much more specific than rods. The P cells are smaller and more numerous than M cells. This helps them be better at giving information about edges, fine detail and color. The activation of a P cell gives information about a very specific location. The P cells give high resolution information. Axons from the ganglion cells converge on the optic disc, penetrate the eye, and continue toward the diencephalon on the optic nerve II. From there the information is split in half and travels to the back of the brain and to the occipital lobe. Together, the diencephalon and the brain stem process the information and control eye reflexes and pupil dilation and/or constriction in order to see clearer and focus in on an object. Depth perception is a phenomenon that takes place when the visual cortex of my occipital lobes reviews the slightly different information obtained by each eyeball. The superior colliculi of the midbrain make

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