Child Reading Development

Reading is a complex development process which integrates varying skills, some of which are acquired innately while others must be taught. For some children, the process of learning to read is natural and happens instinctively. For others learning to read needs to be explicit and intentional. Children progress at their individual pace often based on their unique experiences. These experiences are analogous to the socio-economic status and level of parental education, number of siblings, whether both parents work or does one parent stay home with the child and/or what type of preschool does the child attend (Zakariya, 2015). There are many theories for the development and stages of reading based on research by Firth, Marsh, Werner and Chall. …show more content…
To be expected the 12 components are scaffolded skills with a bottom-up approach to reading instruction. Students must first develop and demonstrate proficiency with the developmental reading skills. Students must have solid decoding skills and fairly consistent fluency in order to acquire the skills associated with reading to learn. When the instructional environment is designed to encourage and support increased independent reading, reading for pleasure to explore new interest, and reading to expand on their prior knowledge or new curiosities, students will have the opportunity to build their comprehension dexterity. Instructional tasks should provide students with the opportunity to read a wide range of literature as well as informational and practical text that challenges their ability to determine main idea, supporting details and to summarize what was read. This is accomplished when assignments are thoughtfully designed, when they integrate content area learning expectations with written expression expectations coupled with high level of cognitive rigor (cognitive rigor should not be confused with level of difficulty - as students should only be issued that they are capable of …show more content…
Students must be provided opportunities, guidance and support in developing the competence in both expressive and receptive language. Many students struggle with integrating all of these skills and it is especially difficult for those students who have not acquired mastery of the early foundation skills of reading or who are dealing with a language-based learning disability. Learning strategies should be explicit and include a variety of activities that are structured for students to feel successful and competent. Key strategies include questioning and response techniques; teacher-to-student as well as student-to-student, sequenced and scaffolded learning task that allow students to build understanding from one level to the next, teacher elaboration and modeling, and small group or individualized intensified

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