Complex Development And Stages Of Reading

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Reading is a complex development process which integrates varying skills, some of which are acquired innately while others must be taught. For some children, the process of learning to read is natural and happens instinctively. For others learning to read needs to be explicit and intentional. Children progress at their individual pace often based on their unique experiences. These experiences are analogous to the socio-economic status and level of parental education, number of siblings, whether both parents work or does one parent stay home with the child and/or what type of preschool does the child attend (Zakariya, 2015). There are many theories for the development and stages of reading based on research by Firth, Marsh, Werner and Chall. …show more content…
(Mariou, n.d.)

Jeanne Chall categorized reading into 6 stages; 0 to 5. Each stage is described through several features from estimated grade and age levels to specific skills that children can and should learn within that stage. Progressing from stage to stage is dependent on acquiring the skills of the previous stage and for the most part requires instruction and guidance. Many factors play a role in how well a student/learner progresses, however, none so critical as the preparedness and investment of teacher instruction at the early elementary grades. Stage 0 focuses on pre-reading and initial reading skills that hopefully are developed at home prior to the start of formal education. Stages 1 and 2 are the foundational skills that early elementary teachers must place a high premium on when designing instruction. Much of the learning that occurs in the early elementary classroom should be focused on developing the early literacy skills that solidify the letter-sound relationship, advancing the decoding and encoding skills which is
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Students must be provided opportunities, guidance and support in developing the competence in both expressive and receptive language. Many students struggle with integrating all of these skills and it is especially difficult for those students who have not acquired mastery of the early foundation skills of reading or who are dealing with a language-based learning disability. Learning strategies should be explicit and include a variety of activities that are structured for students to feel successful and competent. Key strategies include questioning and response techniques; teacher-to-student as well as student-to-student, sequenced and scaffolded learning task that allow students to build understanding from one level to the next, teacher elaboration and modeling, and small group or individualized intensified

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