Essay On Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes

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Even though systematics previously used more conventional systems such as Chatton’s division of life in to two main cellular groups; the eukaryote-prokaryote dichonomy (cited in Sapp, 2005), as well as Whittaker’s Five Kingdom system to organise all living things (Whittaker, 1969), they do not co-exist compatibly or correctly. The five kingdom system is not phylogenetically correct and eukaryote and prokaryote systems do not take into consideration new sequencing abilities (Kandler, Wheelis & Woese, 1990). These previous taxa are outdated because they do offer readily available, accurate or historical information. Whilst previously grouping eukaryotes and prokaryotes using cellular data, currently on a molecular level, sequencing gives us a …show more content…
Eubacteria best live in moderate temperatures, low salts and where there is a plethora of sunlight or organic compounds (Ladiges, 2010). The main differentiating structure of eubacteria is that it has peptidoglycan in its cell walls, has one RNA polymerase and has the ability to form spores that can live many years but remain inactive until its environment is just right for it to activate itself. They are similar to eukaryotes in that they also have ester linked lipids, may photosynthesise using chlorophyll and their DNA are both negatively coiled. Archaebacteria uses ether linked lipids, have membranes that enclose lipids with hydrocarbons and survive extreme conditions for example hot springs or extreme pH (Ladiges, 2010 ). Both eubacteria and archaebacteria live up to the prokaryote name in that they both have no cell nucleus, their ecological roles are similar, produce a-sexually and are similar in size and shape on a cellular level. However archaebacteria is special in that on a molecular level, it is actually more similar to eukaryotes than either is to eubacteria and have a very distinctive metabolism (Fox & Woese, 1977). Molecular sequencing allows us to further look into organisms on a deeper level that demonstrates archaebacteria to be more like eukaryotes as they have many types of polymerase, their genes and enzymes both behave similarly, there is no peptidoglycan in its cell walls, have histomes that order the DNA into nucleosomes, react to antibiotics similarly, have a nitrification process and both their protein synthesis use the same methionine amino acid function. It was thought that modern bacteria evolved from archaebacteria but new scientific methods of DNA molecular sequencing concludes that they are not that primitive and the fairly homogenous group have evolved just as much (Ladiges, 2010). Instead of being the related to bacteria, in fact it is the ancestor of

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