Compare And Contrast The Neo-Classical School Of Criminology

Decent Essays
The Classical school of criminology has been associated to philosophers Marchese Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham (Irving & Mendelsohn, 1985). The Classical school of criminology was a body of thought that majorly impacted the criminal justice system through the transformation of crime and punishment. Beccaria believed that the best solution for crime was punishment (Taylor, Walton & Young, 2003). The main solution to crime is the use of punishment. Consequently, responsibility was given to the government. The Classical school of criminology encouraged social control (Taylor, et al., 2003). The Classical school encouraged the state to react and be responsible of the criminal. The state was accountable for punishing the offender and providing public …show more content…
The new school of thought now considered the state of mind of the offender. The Neo-Classical school of criminology considered if the offender was mentally ill, a minor and or insane/incompetent would be considered in determining the offenders state of mind (Taylor, et al., 2003). Evaluating the circumstances of the criminals’ mindset were used in confidence to reduce complete responsibility. The state of mind for each criminal made the courts consider how punishment should be applied. Moreover, courts were now encouraged to treat irrational offenders leniently. The motive for this was that these offenders were incapable of telling the difference between right and wrong (Taylor, et al., 2003). Irrational offenders were perceived as individuals that lacked normal intelligence. The Neo-Classical approach outlined the need of psychological treatments. The reformed school encouraged the legal justice system to evaluate the state of mind of criminals which involved the use of psychologists. The school of thought acknowledged crime was out of the control for selected offenders’. The theory encouraged the state to acknowledge the offenders past …show more content…
Rational choice theory best explains why crime occurs. Hayward (2007) explains that this theory considers offenders to be rational individuals that plan their crimes. Offenders take into consideration the pain and pleasure he or she may have to deal with. The offender evaluates the risks before he or she decides to break the law.
There are many factors taken into consideration when individuals commit crimes such as, the punishment one would receive, the success they would receive and who it would benefit. Crime is broken for personal reasons, it is a cost benefit analysis (Hayward, 2007). The offender determines the advantage of criminal behaviour. Rational choice theory assumes that an individual is egotistic (Boudon, 2003). It is perceived that an individual who commits an unlawful act is mainly concerned with only themselves. When considering the current news story selected I argue that the 32-year-old man who decided it was okay to rape a 10-month-old infant was rational and aware of his

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Introduction Criminal law has been shaped by various ideas about its purposes (Duff, 2002a in Crime and Justice). One purpose served by the criminal law is to ensure that those who act wrongly receive the pain which is their just desert (Johnston and Ward 2010, 8). This simply put means that the community expectations of the criminal justice system is to see a wrongdoer reprimanded for his or her crime. The Elizabethan era is a prime example of this, as punishment for crime was often a public spectacle and in the form of hanging or flogging. The criminal justice system was also thought to shape human conduct.…

    • 1355 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Crime And Deviance Theory

    • 961 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Benson (1985) states that criminals who have been convicted of their crime, begin to rationalize their conduct to themselves before participating in crime (p. 588). Benson’s article shows the growth in between the differential association theory and the techniques of neutralization, since he combines the concept of criminal behaviour being learned, and that criminals form rationalizes of their actions. Throughout Benson’s study it is noted that the criminals that participated in fraud, often try to shift blame, which corresponds directly to the denial of responsibility in the Techniques of Neutralization, and they show prosecutors as having their own agenda, which corresponds to the condemnation of condemners in the Techniques of…

    • 961 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Rational Choice also is the "stresses the point that society can achieve a high degree of crime prevention by focusing on the situational aspects that influence particular types of criminal behavior" (76). Deterrence theory is an individual 's choice to commit or chose not to commit a crime is influenced by the fear of punishment. The Economic model is "criminal behavior follows a calculation whereby criminals explore the perceived costs, rewards, and…

    • 831 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Criminology Theory Essay

    • 1147 Words
    • 5 Pages

    As we have the past centuries have been studying the way and why a person has committed crimes as well as trying to understand why behave in different patterns and different types of situations that they come across. One would first use the general theory of crime, which was developed by Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi. Now in this particular theory they both believed that “deviance and criminal acts of self-control”(criminology by Leonard Glick, J. Mitchell Miller pg.176). Thus making an extremely great point, because their understanding was if you showed high levels of self control you would have the less chances of committing the crimes. Where as if you did not have that balance, then you could possibly commit the crime as well…

    • 1147 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    “It is better to prevent crime than to punish it” (Beccaria, 1764/1963:93). Cesare Beccaria trusted punishments should be consistent and proportionate to the crime. He also believed that punishments are unjust when their severity exceeds what is necessary to achieve deterrence. Additionally the severity, swiftness and certainty of punishment was a key aspect to Cesare Beccaria in recidivism and controlling crime (O 'Brien, M. et al., 2008). Cesare…

    • 1195 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    One is by striking fear and having a harsh punishment upon that criminal. The due process model is that criminals are innocent until proven guilty. This could mean to be able to rehabilitate that criminal until they can get back into society. The article I found was called “Crime Control, due process and ‘The Case For The prosecution’ A problem of Terminology? by Peter Duff.” It was about this debate between “Smith and McConville, Sanders and Leng.…

    • 445 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Social Learning Theory and Containment Theory both acknowledge that society plays a strong role in crime; however, Containment Theory, being part of the control theory school of thought, also places strong emphasis on the individual and internal factors to explain how some people commit criminal activity while others do not when exposed to the same external forces (Lilly et al., 2015). The real difference in these theories becomes a question of free will. Are people defined simply by their environments and learned behaviors, or is there something internal that steers us in our development? Personally, my opinion most closely coincides with Reckless and his peers among the control theory, but one cannot deny that Akers’ Social Learning Theory has been considered one of the best explanations for crime causation. Using Akers’ theory, if one is able to gather statistical data of an area and take measures to make changes and improve that environment it could reduce the criminal presence in that area by disrupting the criminal element that exists.…

    • 1159 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    What is justice? Justice is a noun defined by Webster 's dictionary as the process or result of using laws to fairly judge and punish crime and criminals. However, an individual 's perception of justice may be different from the standard dictionary definition. For example, Dexter is an American crime drama that takes an aspect of justice as its setting and uses it to invoke the audience to contemplate the idea of justice. With this in mind, the producers of Dexter make both a idealistic and realistic claim: the ideals of modern justice are catching criminals and penalizing them for their crimes, yet because the legal system and the people who serve it are flawed, the producers seek to critique the definition of justice and who has the right to enforce justice.…

    • 784 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The central concepts that are the body of Rational Choice Theory are decision-making, choices, present centeredness and the opportunity for committing crime. Success in offending, therefore, with drive and develop criminal characteristics leading to a life of criminality. Failure in offending, on the other hand, will lead to the reduction of criminal activity and eventually desistance (Stogner, 2015). Based on the above concepts, it is obvious to see the relationship between Rational Choice Theory and the Theory of Deterrence. Both Rational Choice Theory and Deterrence Theory state that individuals are hedonistic and are deterred from crime through the implementation of certain, swift and severe punishments; and both also discuss the experiential and emboldening effects attributed to the success of crime or the ineffectiveness of the punishment.…

    • 2124 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    One of the earliest solutions was to sterilized people with abnormal physical features and low intelligence to improve humanity and reduce criminal behavior. Another is the deportation or denied entrance to the United States of people who fits the criteria of criminality. By today’s standard, rehabilitation is the primary tool to change criminal behavior since punishment should be based on the circumstances on the crime rather than the crime itself. It focuses helping individuals to identify and resolve their problems that lead them to the life of crime. For example, a drug addict who commits a minor infraction will attend a rehab center to get clean and obtain other…

    • 930 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays