Compare And Contrast The Cell Cycle Of A Normal Cell And Cancer Cell

Improved Essays
Melanoma

DUE JANUARY 4TH
Compare and Contrast the cell cycle of a normal cell and cancer cell.

○ Explain the similarities and differences at each stage of the cell cycle in cancer and normal cells:
How do cancer cells and normal cells behave similarly & differently in G1
In a normal cell during G1 it would increase its supply of proteins, double the amount of organelles and begin its first growth, if the cell is bad then the tumor suppressor gene would slow down or stop the cycle to repair it, if it isn’t repairable then it would kill the cell.
In a cancerous cell, during G1 it would do the same thing, however the tumor suppressor gene would be broken and can’t stop the cell cycle to repair the bad cell, therefore letting the cell continue
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Explain how changes in the following three types of genes can cause cancer

○ Explain the role of Tumor Suppressor Genes when functioning normally. The tumor suppressor gene controls Ras genes and P53, it slows cell division
○ What are the mutations that can occur in those genes? Missense, Nonsense, Deletion, Insertion, Substitution, Inversion, Duplication
■ How do those mutations cause cancer?
Chromosome rearrangements: Changes in chromosomes that put one gene next to another, which allows one gene to activate the other
Gene duplication: Having extra copies of a gene, which can lead to it making too much of a certain protein
■ Provide 2 common examples
Familial retinoblastoma: occurs when a baby inherits from one of its parents a chromosome (number 13) that has its RB locus deleted. The normal Rb protein controls the cell cycle. It integrates the signals reaching the cell to determine whether it is safe for the cell to complete the passage from G1 of the cell cycle to
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Provide Statistics.

Explain how microarray technology can be used to learn how genetic risks can be identified.

○ What is the purpose of microarray?
The microarray technology helps scientists identify the change in cells by comparing gene expression and repression within a normal and cancer cell.
○ Explain the process of microarray
In a microarray the mRNA is removed from both the infected and uninfected cell. The mRNA is converted into Complementary DNA (cDNA), which is mixed with chemicals. From there cDNA matches up to the DNA already on the slide by looking at the order of the sequence and uniting the two complementary segments. The color on the slide changes depending on…
○ How are the results from a microarray interpreted?
○ Explain how microarray uses Gene Expression to assess cancer risk
○ How is Differential Gene Expression used in a microarray?
■ What is the purpose of reverse-transcription (cDNA)? Why can’t we just use the DNA from cancer cells and normal cells?
Sources:

https://www.genome.gov/10000533/dna-microarray-technology/

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