Comparison Of Psychoanalysis And Humanism

Improved Essays
Psychoanalysis and Humanism
The study of psychology is defined as an academic discipline characterised by a variety of explanations and perspectives regarding human behaviour. The following essay will be focusing primarily on two of these various perspectives, namely psychoanalysis and humanism and provide a detailed explanation on the origins, classifications and various characteristics of these perspectives. Psychoanalysis is an insight therapy that encourages the resurfacing of the client’s unconscious conflicts, motives and defences through methods such as free association and transference. (Weiten, W. (2013). Psychology: Themes and Variations. (9th Ed.). Las Vegas: John David Hague). Humanism is defined as the theoretical orientation that
…show more content…
The aspects of the study of psychoanalysis were brought about by key proponents, namely Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. Frued’s approach to psychoanalysis grew out of his desired attempts to treat mental disorders. During the period of 1894 – 1900, Freud went through a period of what was later to be known as his period of “creative illness”. It was in this period of time in which he analysed his own psychological disturbances and emerged with the basic elements of his psychoanalytic theory. Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist who developed an association with Freud but later split regarding conflicts over the psychoanalytic theory. He thereafter founded his own school of psychoanalytic though. Alfred Adler contributed a variety of research to psychology and became a prominent and influential individual in society e to his intuitive and common sense regarding human life. The key proponents regarding the study of humanism were prominent individuals in society such as Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow and Erich Fromm. The views of Carl Rogers were conflicting to the teachings of the Freudian theory as he based his research on the personal experiences of humans as opposed to their drives and instincts. Abraham Maslow based his research on the concepts of Self-actualisation, Human growth and human orientation. The proponent Erich Fromm …show more content…
As life moves towards death, these fears show up in our personality traits as destructiveness. Freud classified the mind into the Id (controls what a person desires to do), the ego (controls what an individual is capable of doing) and the superego (controls the logical reasoning of our personality). Freud formulated the fact that not only do we as humans remember the painful experiences from the past but we are also strongly affected by them. During his research he concluded that his patients, “Cannot escape from the past and neglect present reality in its favour. This fixation of the mental life on the pathogenic traumata is an essential and practically the most significant characteristic of the neurosis.” (Freud. S, 910. P.187). Freud conclude that we as humans use many techniques to protect the ego such as denial, projection, reaction formation, transference, isolation, regression and repression. Carl Jung based his research on the concept of individuation,(journey of the soul) This theory is based on the fact that our actions in life are due to our desire for the achievement of wholeness. With regards to humanism, Carl Rogers formulated that a form of conflict between what you truly value in yourself and what you earn about other people’s evaluation of

Related Documents

  • Superior Essays

    Freud developed hypnosis to control the forces of the defense mechanisms and reveal the unconscious material (Carducci, 2009). Conclusion Psychoanalytic theory has high impacts on psychological and philosophical conceptions of the human nature. Freud attributed to what people experience with the underlying beliefs, emotions, feeling and impulses. According to Freud, to have a healthy personality there should be a balance between the id, the ego, and the super-ego. References Carducci, B.…

    • 1134 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Sigmund Freud has been criticized throughout his years for his character and his scientific theories, which his metaphor for describing personality holds truth. Psychoanalysis has three main components that consists of a method of investigating the mind and the way the mind thinks, a set of theories that is systemized about the behavior of an individual, and a method of treatment of the emotional illness and psychological of an individual. The treatment methods given by Sigmund Freud…

    • 1258 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Freud believed that the id, ego, and superego are in constant conflict and that adult personality and behavior are rooted in the results of these internal struggles throughout childhood. He believed that a person who has a strong ego has a healthy personality and that imbalances in this system can lead particular disorders such as anxiety and depression and unhealthy behaviors (). The Freud theory of consciousness is critical as a foundation for understanding human thought and behavior. Freud aimed to see beyond the behavior and explored the unconscious. He significantly changed the way the world views behavior by explaining certain levels of consciousness, the components of the unconscious mind and the different developmental phases.…

    • 738 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Introduction Sigmund Freud. A man who heavily influenced psychology in the twentieth century with his radical ideas of dreams, childhood, sexuality and the role of the unconscious. Freud is known as the father of psychoanalysis; a system of therapy that was utilized to release repressed emotions and experiences into the conscious mind of the patient. The fundamental principles of psychoanalysis are heavily debated since there is no clear scientific evidence proving Freud 's theories to be accurate. Scientist disprove the validity of psychoanalysis because it lacks empirical data, and heavily depends on clinical data as its main form of evidence.…

    • 1351 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Great Essays

    The id is the “reflecting base (with) primary instinctual needs demanding instant gratification” (Topics in the History of Psychology, volume 2, G.A.Kimle, K. Schlesinger, p228) and is concerned in seeking out pleasure. Where as the ego is “governed by the reality principle” (Topics in the History of Psychology, volume 2, G.A.Kimle, K. Schlesinger, p228) and its role is to repress and control the id. Finally, the superego is somewhere between the two and is the moral conscience. The superego also holds the image of the ideal self, which is a mental picture of what one should aim to be. The way Freud viewed the roles of the id, ego and superego within the mind was crucial to him developing his methods as a therapist.…

    • 1517 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Everyone experiences some form of anxiety at some point in their life, whether it be over an exam or something more significant like finding a job. Sigmund Freud, who studied personality in depth, concluded that anxiety is the price we pay for civilization. His studies lead him to unearth mysteries about our conscious and how it affects our personality. He developed a theory that illustrates the conflict that occurs over our impulses and the systems that control them. From this, Freud introduced the defense mechanisms, which guard us against the normal anxieties all people encounter.…

    • 849 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Freud also recognised the superego, which embodies our sense of right and wrong and strives by the moral principle. With each structure aiming to fulfil their own purpose, this then results in a conflict that the ego must try to appease to. But through this anxiety, the ego employs its own defence mechanisms such as repression, denial, dissociation etc. These defence mechanisms then result in the abnormalities the individual is…

    • 1349 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    However the humanistic approach places a lot of emphasis on the idea that an individual has complete free will of their own behaviour (Maslow 1964). Abraham Maslow (1943) argued that personal agency was essential in order for humans to be fully functional. The psychodynamic perspective suggests that all actions are out of our control and predetermined. An example of this would be the ‘Freudian slip’ (Freud 1966). Freud proposed that when an individual misspeaks, it is actually there unconscious thoughts breaking through to the conscious.…

    • 1445 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Abraham Maslow Essay

    • 1011 Words
    • 5 Pages

    This assignment looks at Managers, leaders, Motivation, and communication. Abraham Maslow was one of the founders of Humanistic Psychology, he also was famous for Hierarchy of needs (Saul McLeod, 2007). Maslow felt that Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory and Skinner’s behavioral theory were too focused on the negative or pathological aspect and I agree (Saul McLeod, 2007). Maslow looks at the needs of each individual which provided the determination to become successful (Saul McLeod, 2007). Humanistic psychology is a perspective that pinpoints the individual and how they deal with stressful situations such as free will, self-efficacy, and self-actualization (Saul McLeod, 2007).…

    • 1011 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Freud’s individual and psychological grounds for his work entail a very personal and inward type of determinism which leads to what we know of human nature. Freud focuses on psychological properties of humans, such as their levels of awareness−conscious, subconscious, unconscious− and their personality structure−id, ego, superego−which makes his ideology extremely individual based and speaks of biological instinctual drives as human’s motive to execute any behavior in order to seek pleasure. Therefore, his philosophy contains the notion in which human nature is based on their unconscious prospects and humanity has no authentic free will. Marx, in contrast, focuses much more on societal determinism in terms of history and the current economic institution in which citizens find themselves. Marx studied class distinction within capitalism and deemed it the foundation and cause of poverty in society.…

    • 1794 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Improved Essays