Fascism Ideologies: Benito Mussolini And Adolf Hitler

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Following the end of World War I, a new political doctrine emerged in Italy and Germany and was strongly enforced and spread by two extremely influential figures: Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler. This new political ideology was named fascism by Mussolini, and according to him, was different than all ideologies before it; he lists in The Doctrine of Fascism ideologies such as socialism and democracy that fascism specifically opposes. Both Mussolini and Hitler rejected most ideologies that came before them, with both changing the systems in place in their respective nations of Italy and Germany. Despite Mussolini incessantly stating that fascism was new, it was not entirely different than the ideologies and doctrines before. Fascism did reject …show more content…
Mussolini specifically writes phrases in The Doctrine such as “it [Fasicm] is opposed to classical Liberalism…Fasicm is opposed to Socialism…Fasicm is opposed to Democracy…” (Mussolini 235-6), which he proves through reason and proposing the differences between the doctrines. In addition to reject political ideologies, Mussolini also, more subtly, rejects Enlightenment thinkers such as Locke, who favored the self interest of the individual and the majority: “Against individualism…Fascism denies the majority…” (Mussolini 235, 237). He does not specifically say Locke’s name in his arguments, yet the rejection is clearly there. Despite rejecting numerous ideologies before, fascism actually incorporates others into itself, something Mussolini does not plainly admit in his Doctrine. Fascism is totalitarian in Mussolini’s teachings, where one rules above all, which is the absolutism ideal of the earlier sixteenth century. Fascism also is “a nation by reason of nature…spiritual formation as one conscience and one sole will” (Mussolini 236). This is wholly Rousseau’s ideals from the same period of absolutism. Rousseau paints a picture of morally good conscious of the nation’s people as a whole, named the general will, that choose the best things for the nation-state. Fascism is directly tied to Rousseau’s general will. Although Mussolini insists on his doctrine being unique and new, fascism is actually an incorporation and rejection of ideologies before

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