Wenden And Narens: A Metacognitive Analysis

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Wenden (1991) and Flavell (1976) both define metacognitive strategies as mental operations or procedures that learners use to regulate their learning. They are directly responsible for the execution of a writing task and include three main kinds: planning, evaluating and monitoring. Whereas cognitive strategies are mental operations or steps used by writers to learn new information and apply it to specific writing tasks.
(Nelson & Narens, 1990) asserted that confusion may arise when distinguishing between cognitive and metacognitive strategies. To unravel the perplexity, he simplifies cognitive strategies as the lower level of strategies employed to make cognitive progress while metacognitive strategies are the higher level of strategies that aid in the implementation of the lower level of strategies. Congruently, Flower and Hayes (1981) states that the network of strategies that the writer creates is categorized into high-level and supporting sub-strategies which embody the writer’s developing sense of purpose. These strategies can be changed at times or even replaced by entirely new ones during the writing process. Additionally, Anderson (2002) believes that developing metacognitive awareness may also lead to the
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(Kellogg, 1994) suggests that the process of generating ideas involves searching source materials, reading the materials, hearing a lecture, or discussing the topic with other people. The collecting skills of searching, reading, experiencing, listening, and discussing are fundamental to a writer’s success. But writers sometimes experience either a chaotic floods of ideas or a shortage of writing ideas, or no ideas at all. Basically, to guide a writer from this dilemma, he/she has to focus on the planned activities by following the written guide from the priority list in the metacognitive

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