The purpose of this essay is to discuss Denis McQuail’s four concepts of communication in contemporary Western culture. It will be discussed in this essay how each media form exhibits a communication model and to what extent that it does so. It will also be discussed whether each of these models are independent or correlated. For each communication model, a different media form will be used to explain how it is being manifested. Television broadcasting will be used to explain the transmission model, magazine advertisements will be used to explain the publicity model, websites will be used to shed light on the ritual model and lastly, newspapers will be used to prove the existence of the reception model.
The four communication models of
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Last but not least, the publicity model ‘is neither to transmit particular information nor to untie a public in some expression of culture, belief or values, but simply to catch and hold visual or aural attention’, in accordance to Carey (1992, pp. 51-52). This communicating process is used when the sender’s target is high spectatorship. The sender might not necessarily have a meaning to convey to its’ audience and the time where audience is exposed to the message is infinite. This includes billboards, magazines and newspapers. The publicity model manifests magazines through product and service advertisements. The sole purpose of this form of public communication is to built relationships with the spectators rather than to sell the products and services.
Different placements of an advertisement in a magazine or newspaper may have a higher possibility of being noticed. Unfortunately, many advertisements fail to stand out from the clutter of many other advertisements. For full-page advertisements, the placement of eye-catching pictures should be placed at the outer corner of the page because when the page is flipped, their fingers will be holding the edge of the page where their attention will be. The use of colours and fonts are also examples of manifestation of the publicity model. For example, the following advertisement in appendix 2 displays the characteristics of the publicity model by showing a younger version