Clopidogrel Lab Report

Amazing Essays
I. INTRODUCTION:
Clopidogrel is one of the major drugs used in the treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome. Along with Aspirin it is the standard of care in Percutaneous Coronary Interventions with stenting, when a long term dual antiplatelet treatment is needed. However the response to clopidogrel shows wide inter-individual variations. Various studies have shown that the polymorphisms in the genes responsible for Clopidogrel absorption and metabolism are a major factor for these variations. Polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 and P2Y12 gene affect the platelet aggregometry response to Clopidogrel. This increases the risk of recurrent thrombotic events in patients who are poor responders to clopidogrel. Hence it is important to determine the relationship between these polymorphism
…show more content…
The inflammation and Cholesterol containing deposits (plaque) in your arteries are usually to blame for coronary artery disease. These building up of plaques, start narrowing coronary arteries and decreasing blood flow to the heart. Eventually, this decreased blood flow may cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or other diseases associated with coronary artery. A complete blockage can cause a heart attack.

ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME (ACS):

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) can be defined as a spectrum of clinical conditions from unstable angina to ST-elevation Myocardial infarction (MI) consequent to myocardial ischemia. In vivo imaging techniques applied in humans and the success of fibrinolytic and antithrombotic therapy in ACS established in practice the role of thrombosis in their pathogenesis. A number of micro anatomic mechanisms underlie acute coronary thrombosis. The rupture of plaque’s protective fibrous cap can, most commonly cause lethal coronary thrombosis, according to autopsy studies. [14] This physical disruption of the atherosclerotic plaque results in almost all acute coronary thrombosis. Once platelets are exposed to the ruptured

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    However, ischemia-caused ATN is the main contributor of intrarenal acute renal failure (Mehta et al., 2011). Postischemic ATN may result and cause hypotension, hypoperfusion, and hypoxemia. Consequently, there will be a decline in ATP production and increases in toxic oxygen-free radicals, which predisposing antioxidant protection, tissue swelling, injury and necrosis. Impairment of the proximal tubular epithelium disrupts the transport of molecules. The highest damage is noted on the outer medulla, with necrosis ate the cortex and loss of cells in the tubular epithelium (Bellomo, Kellum, & Ronco, 2012).…

    • 1666 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Some of the complications of contrast-induced nephropathy are cardiac arrest, pulmonary embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, and stroke. Some of the complications of drug-induced nephropathy are chronic interstitial nephritis, rhabdomyolysis, and glomerulonephritis. Health Education: Instruct the patient to consult a doctor if there is blood in the urine, persistent swelling in the legs and ankles or increased blood pressure. Patients with Contrast-induced nephropathy should be educated about the necessity of follow-up care with their physicians with post-procedure serum creatinine estimation, especially if the incident was done on an outpatient basis. Finally, as a nurse, giving good psychological support is very important because patients with this kind of disease may experience depression, emotional stress, lethargy, etc.…

    • 757 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The most common cause of a stroke is from atheroma, or plaque buildup on the artery wall leading to narrowing and then finally an infarction of the brain, or a stroke (VanMeter & Hubert, 2014, p. 347). The progression of an atherosclerosis, starts with damage to the endothelium of the artery (VanMeter & Hubert, 2014, p. 235). This leads to inflammation and an accumulation of lipids, and white blood cells in the (middle) muscle layer of the vessel (VanMeter & Hubert, 2014, p. 235). This leads to further inflammation and plaque buildup (VanMeter…

    • 1404 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Docetaxel Research Paper

    • 1999 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Factors such as height, weight, the type of cancer being treated, and how far along the cancer has developed factors into how much medicine the patients receive. Use of docetaxel can result in low white and red blood cell counts. This increases chances of infections and may cause anemia. Other side effects of the drug can be hair loss, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, low platelet counts(increases chances of bleeding), mouth sores, fatigue, etc. Docetaxel is from the drug class taxane.…

    • 1999 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Q1: Pt is diagnosed with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) which normally occurs due to antheroscheloric plaque rupturing and distributing in the blood vessall. Substances that promote platelet aggregation and thrombus formation are then exposed in the blood streams which will eventually cause blockage of blood flow in the coronary artery . Patient’s medical history of hypertension is one of the most important risk factors of acute Myocardial infarction as the constantly high blood pressure can cause damage to artery endothelium and make her more vulnerable in developing atheroschelerosis plaque If the cessation of blood flow will stop oxygen and nutrient supply to heart muscle, the heart muscle becomes injured and eventually myocardial…

    • 1119 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The fatty deposits are referred to as plaques. once this happens, the flow of blood is restricted. coronary artery disease will happen throughout the body. within the arteries of the guts it 's called arteria coronaria sickness,within the legs, peripheral blood vessel sickness. coronary artery disease happens over a amount of your time and its consequences will be grave and embody coronary failure and stroke.…

    • 1020 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    In a Coronary Artery Disease, the coronary arteries, narrow inside and harden due to build up fatty materials known as plaque. This will eventually lead to a decrease in blood flow to the heart muscle (Skyschally, Schulz, & Heusch, 2008). When the plaque cracks or breaks up, a blood clot forms on the surface of the plaque. The clot (thrombus) overtime, will completely block the flow of blood in the artery. A heart attack will happen once the flow of blood is blocked and a part of the heart muscle is damaged (as seen in the diagram below).…

    • 1435 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Creative Biolab Essay

    • 1035 Words
    • 5 Pages

    C1-inhibitor associated disease Deficiency of C1-inhibitor is associated with hereditary angioedema (HAE) and acquired angioedema (AAE), Both conditions trigger recurrent angioedema which could be life threatening. Hereditary angioedema HAE is a disorder that leads to the recurrent attacks of severe swelling. This usually has an impact on patients’ arms, legs, face and intestinal tracts. The genetic defect is ascribed to the heterozygous deficiency of C1-inhibitor. Mutations have been identified and are reported to elicit reduced levels of C1-inhitors in the blood or lead to the production of C1-inhibitors without normal functionality.…

    • 1035 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    A. S AKI Case Study

    • 796 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Heart failure in itself is clasified as prerenal cause of AKI. What this means is that the cause of the AKI is a results of factors external to the kidneys. With heart failure the cardiac output is decresed which inturn decreases the perfusion to the kidenys so the kidneys are not receving enough oxygen to work correctly. With prolonged perfusion problems the cause of the AKI can progress from perrenal to intrarenal. This happens when the prerenal cause (heart failure/decreased profusion) is proonged and actully causes direct injury to the kidney.…

    • 796 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Mr. Canton’s isoenzymes are elevated caused by the damage to his heart muscle. CK-MB generally rises after a heart attack, inflammation of the heart muscle, muscular dystrophy, and other problems related to the heart. (University of Rochester Medical Center) One of the main reasons leading to a myocardial infarction is by atherosclerotic plaque buildup caused by a disruption in the blood flow of the heart. As blood is increases its flow rate, this can cause plaque to rupture developing into a thrombus (blood clot). When cells are not getting the amount of oxygen…

    • 811 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays