Climate Change Challenges

Improved Essays
Introduction

Climate Change is a global phenomenon that international policy-makers are quickly coming to realise is a serious problem in need of being addressed immediately (Koh et al., 3). The rapid warming of the earth has, in the past, been dismissed as unimportant; ‘simply a concern for polar bears stranded on melting ice caps’, but in actuality, Climate Change is a huge human rights crisis. There are numerous people who have to worry about losing a basic human right – the right to a home – because soon the land that they live on will cease to exist above sea level (“Why Climate Change is a Threat to Human Rights”). Now knowing this, countries around the world are working on international agreements to fix this problem.

One such agreement
…show more content…
The Kyoto Protocol outlined three mechanisms to help meet this goal: Joint Implementation (JI), International Emissions Trading (IET), and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) (Yamin, xli).
Implementation Challenge:

As well as trying to mitigate Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol was also trying to preserve the economic development of developing countries, because history shows that developed countries have been the main emitters of GHGs while developing countries suffer most of the consequences (Oberthür, 27). This resulted in giving developing countries a ‘free pass’ and giving developed countries all the commitments of the accord. Additionally, the mechanisms that the Protocol proposed were already “economically efficient and politically impractical”, borrowing words from Christopher Bohringer, making it even worse for developing countries. However, this division of responsibilities by developmental state meant it was difficult to get countries to come to a consensus. In the end it led to some countries, particularly the USA, refusing ratification of the agreement. The USA was at the time the largest emitter of GHGs, so having them, alongside India and China, not participate meant that the Kyoto Protocol was on shaky ground
…show more content…
The three mechanisms making up the Protocol were hastily taken from other treaties (e.g. the Montreal Protocol regarding ozone depletion, the US-Soviet nuclear arms treaty, and a treaty on acid rain reduction) and ‘adapted’ to emission reductions. However, those problems were straightforward and their solutions were not appropriate to the situation at hand. For example: IET and the creation of a carbon market. Hypothetically, this would work, because the units for carbon allowance would be seen as a limited resource, raising its ‘price’ and lowering the demand to use carbon, but carbon is not like ozone depleting gases; there are no perfect, easy substitutes (“Why the Kyoto Protocol Failed and a New Way Forward”). That being said, the ‘price’ barely increased and demand barely lowered (because there was no physical limit on the number of units; governments were allowed to make allowances and add more units into the market whenever necessary), changing nothing (Prins and Rayner,

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    The second video watched is about a hearing on the President Obama U.N. climate pledge. Dr. Judith Curry says that climate changes caused by humans are unsupported by evidence. There is inadequacy in current polices for emission reduction and some of the major issues are not even being addressed. Climate models provide somewhat inaccurate predictions because they predict more warming than what is being currently being observed. Ms. Harbert, who argues in agreement with Dr. Curry, says that there is the U.S. Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) lack basic information for a rigorous assessment and there seems to be a short on data needed for a proper assessment.…

    • 1093 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Carbon Sequestration

    • 1604 Words
    • 7 Pages

    This solution is advantageous because it easy to implement. The government simply sets strict regulations and taxes when they are not followed. The money collected can then be used for other methods of reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. In a study by Gerlagh and Zwaan that used a program to determine the best methods of reducing carbon dioxide emissions this tax regulation was determined to be the most cost effective (37). However, this solution is not perfect and has one disadvantage.…

    • 1604 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    While the United States would be affected by climate change, their relative vulnerability is low compared with other states, and their economy is so reliant on fossil fuel that the cost to reduce emissions is too high for them to justify. The problem here is the neoliberal institutionalist assumption of monetary value- they limit politics to tangible or numerical reasons, such as national interests in their domestic economy. They pay little heed to intangible forms of value, such as human life or suffering. This allows states to make judgements for entirely economic reasons, so when faced with issues like climate change where much of the potential loss is intangible, decisions which are not representative of the potential gains or losses by combating climate change can occur. The concept of self-interest through cooperation is a key tenet of the neoliberal institutionalist world-view.…

    • 1917 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Charles nodded with agreement and told the ladies that he would try to influence others to help recycle and then Wilma said “Recycling should be mandatory in Charlotte, NC because without recycling global warming is getting worse, recycling is also profitable for cities and residents, and raw materials are nonrenewable.” Recycling should be mandatory in Charlotte, NC because without recycling global warming is getting worse. When using virgin materials to make products it puts more on the earth rather than when using recycled goods. "Recycling works in much the same way. Also when recycling aluminum it saves more energy than regular products like paper and plastic. Recycling is ecologically superior to using virgin materials.…

    • 1657 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    McKitrick’s second point talks about “environmental crisis”, he classifies environmental problems as: “non-issues, situations of concern, problems, and actual crises” (16). He explains the ongoing discussion of global warming and how it’s hard to approach such a large issue. One suggestion was to “implement a tax on carbon dioxide emissions”, this would greatly reduce emissions. Although global warming is a large environmental problem, McKitrick did not touch on many of the other aspects. He solely focused on air pollution and global warming which makes his writing biased towards those issues.…

    • 923 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The Porter Hypothesis has met with great success in political debate, especially in the United States, because it contradicts the idea that environmental protection is always detrimental to economic growth. The PH has been invoked to persuade the business community to accept environmental regulations, as it may benefit from them in addition to other stakeholders. In a nutshell, well-designed environmental regulations might lead to a Pareto improvement or “win– win” situation in some cases, by not only protecting the environment, but also enhancing profits and competitiveness through the improvement of the products or their production process or through enhancement of product quality. Causal Links in the Porter Hypothesis Porter and van der Linde (1995a, 99–100) go on to explain that there are at least five reasons why properly crafted regulations may lead to these outcomes: .  “First, regulation signals companies about likely resource inefficiencies and potential technological improvements.” .…

    • 1670 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Global Climate Pessimism

    • 1088 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Another small reason for hope is that as global awareness of anthropogenic global warming gains traction, governments will be more inclined to follow through with climate change agreements due to the pressure placed on them by their own populations. Unfortunately, the Montreal Protocol was only one success of many similar failures, and the time it might take for populations to pressure their governments to act for the future might, very well, be beyond the point of no return for global warming. The alarming truth about global warming is that the odds are stacked strongly against us in many ways. Gardener pegged the problem as a “Perfect Moral Storm.” As he put it, it is the convergence of three “storms” or dilemmas. I would like to start with the “Spatial Storm.”…

    • 1088 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Geoengineering Solutions

    • 728 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Correspondingly, a vast number of people may question these comparative solutions, as with every claim and resolution comes doubts and investigative concerns. Some may argue that geoengineering is always dangerous, but experts suggest that certain solutions of clean and gradual processes may ultimately pose little harm. The harmful geoengineering methods seem to consequently contribute to global warming. On the other hand, the positive aspects of geoengineering seek “to prevent CO2 from building up in the atmosphere,” and fundamentally hinder the effects of anthropogenic climate change (Alley, Mann). Moreover, any technological application toward this effort cannot simply fix the climate change, there is no such thing as a true quick fix.…

    • 728 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Problems of having global treaty for climate change. There are always some advantage and disadvantage to any kind of law. The same is applied to having the global law for climate change, but there more disadvantage than having advantage of global climate change policy. The main disadvantage of having global law will be on many developing and underdeveloped in this word that need the cheap resource of energy to develop. If there are global treaty for climate change then these countries won’t be able to develop and remain underdeveloped.…

    • 730 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Craven oversimplifies the issue, and although it may have been deliberate in order to make is argument seem more crucial, by only discussing the extreme cases he misses other factors that should be considered. We cannot fully consider the risks unless we actually know what we are risking. When Craven is discussing what taking action will be like he only discusses the cost. Although significant action may be costly there are also other factors to consider, like how significant action for climate change will affect our daily lives. In the essay “Science says revolt!” by Naomi Klein the significant action for climate change that she is calling for is revolutionary because in her perspective global capitalism is the root of the climate change problem.…

    • 1023 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays