China's One-Child Policy

Amazing Essays
2.1 China’s One-Child Policy The Communist Party officially implemented the One-Child Policy in 1979 as a means to curb population growth (The Guardian, Date). Prior to such implementation, the Chinese Government adopted the slogan “Late, Long, Few” (later marriage, longer birth intervals, and fewer births) in 1975, urging each family to have no more than two children. To achieve its goal of lowering population growth rate, the Chinese Government later introduced the One-Child Policy (hereafter called OCP) and created a reward and punishment system to further implement the policy. Rewards and incentives included an increase in hourly wage for family units who followed the rule, promotion in a government job and waived fees for both …show more content…
The first attempt was in 1955 where campaigns were launched to promote birth control. These campaigns eventually led to the creation of the first family planning program in 1956 (The Guardian). However, the Great Leap Forward in 1958 interrupted further progress. Shortly after the famine, the baby Boomer generation in China led to the second attempt at controlling population growth (Schramm, 2011). The government promoted later marriage hoping it would lead to fewer births. This time, the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution led to the downfall of the second attempt at controlling the population (Schramm, 2011; The Guardian). The third attempt was the already mention “Late, Long, and Few.” According to Yu (2011), the third campaign proved to be successful in reducing the birth rate. However, it did not mean the fertility rate was decreasing; in fact, the fertility rate was only affected slightly (Schramm, 2011). Ultimately, the last campaign brought rise to the OCP, which aimed to lower fertility rate instead of birth rate. To do so, the government capped the limit of one birth per family— with some exceptions …show more content…
Because the OCP only allows each family to bear a single child, many family chooses to give birth to a son instead of a daughter due to cultural reasons. China has entered an era know as the “missing girl era” because more sons are coming to the world. The current female to male ratio is 1 to 1.62 (Doherty et al., 2001). The punishment system created to reinforce the OCP only causes more girls to go “missing.” Obstetric care is used to provide insurance for both the pregnant mother and the child, however, because of the OCP, mothers —who give birth to more than one child must pay a fine in addition to the total cost of obstetric cares— chooses to opt out of that option. The risk of bearing a child then increases substantially, thus leading to a higher chance of death of both the mother and child. With the missing females in the Chinese society, the fertility rates will continue to drop because fewer births will occur. The “missing female” era may put the Chinese in a cycle of constant wage increase and failing GDP. This ultimately led to the relaxation of the

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    From 1970 to 1979 the fertility rate dropped from 5.9% to 2.9% using non-forceful and voluntary methods. After the policy was implemented, the population gradually fell until 1995, when it leveled to 1.7% (Hesketh, Lu, and Wei Xing). The recent change from a one-child to two-child policy in China has aimed to increase the decreasing population and mend the other issues it created. Although population reduction was needed at the time of its implementation, the means used were unethical. Other problems were created such as distorted sex ratios, an increasing elderly population, unfair treatment towards women, and an overall decline in women’s health.…

    • 1130 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Before Xiaoping, most women had as many children as they wanted since Zedong encouraged large families. Once the one-child policy was enacted, people were not allowed to have huge families. If families had more than one child, the government could take the baby or abort the baby if they still have them. “Chinese officials recently announced that 336 million abortions and 196 million sterilisations have been performed under the one-child policy (Jian). This acted to keep the people in line.…

    • 1140 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Also According to All Girls Allowed (2013), “The One-Child Policy restricts the majority of Chinese families to one child each. The consequences of having a child without a birth permit vary by province, with fines reaching as high as several times the average annual income”. The one-child policy was extremely effective, in fact, it was believed by leaders that restricting births could lead to economic gain. Also According to All Girls Allowed (2013), “The One-Child Policy has prevented over 400 million births”, therefore it is extremely beneficial. China chose the one-child policy for economic reasons, but think if the entire U.S proposed this system for the benefit of the biosphere.…

    • 812 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    China might be thinking about scrapping its controversial one child policy, as the country faces a demographic challenge. China’s population is aging and labour force is declining. Could the country create a baby boom? China is facing a big demographic problem as the country now has the biggest and rapidly aging population while the working age population also continues to decline. The situation is made trickier by the fact that China’s economic growth is cooling off.…

    • 709 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    They worry that girls will marry and leave with their husband. It seems that many people, although China now allows many couples in certain places to have two children, still favor having only one boy in the family. In the United States, boys and girls are often valued equally among families. It would be difficult to imagine millions of abortions or abandoned baby girls along the side of the road simply for being female. Since the one child policy being enacted, the desire for boys in Chinese families has increased tremendously.…

    • 1925 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    This lends to gender inequality; most families prefer to have a son to carry out the legacy of the family name. In addition, as new technology was created and more parents are able to identify the gender of their child, there have been a dramatic decline in the birth rate of females. "The resulting gender imbalance widened after 1986, when ultrasound testing and abortions became easier to come by...Nonetheless, an April [2009] study published in the British Medical Journal found China still has 32 million more boys than girls under the age of 20." (Document E). The provided evidence demonstrates the difference in the amount of males and females.…

    • 796 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    China even set a childbearing policy to help limit the population growth. The Chinese government introduced the 'One Child Policy ' in 1979. The policy limited couples to one child. Under this policy couples have to gain permission from family planning officials for each birth. If families followed this policy they received free education, health care, pensions and family benefits.…

    • 1387 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    69). The quota system limited the amount of products entering a country (Kunz & Garner, 2011, p.35). This agreement was started to protect domestic production however production was still being moved to newly developing countries with low cost labor. (Kunz & Garner, 2011, p. 347). China had to adhere to this agreement just like any other country during this time which was from 1974 to 2005.…

    • 1422 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Abortion In China

    • 1364 Words
    • 6 Pages

    In the 1960s the missing women phenomenon was less conspicuous because there was a higher fertility rate and a lower mortality rate; therefore, mothers were more likely to have one surviving son without using the sex selection approach. Although the female deficit was reduced during this time, the population growth was unsustainable. During the 1970s, the Chinese government began promoting the two is enough policy which resulted in the sex ratio rise of the first and second-born daughter. According to Wei and Zhang “from the mid-1980s there was a steady increase in the sex imbalance and kept going higher over the next decades” 5. There are different arguments on the future of missing women in China.…

    • 1364 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    That means that more and more people who depend on health care to live will start to die off quickly. However in trying to combat that death issue, “medical coverage has been extended to include birth insurance and workers compensation for mothers who follow China’s birth policies” (Adolescence). This is a start to fixing the problem, yet with no money to fund the health care system it will only be temporary. The lack of money leads to a lack of service and off drugs necessary for the ill. But as state before the care will only be temporary, and “data from the Pan Project for Family Health collected in 2004, indicates that only 50% of women… will receive postpartum care after birth of their last child, indicating poor follow-up in gynaecological management of women” (Culture, Health & Sexuality).…

    • 965 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays