Essay China, India, and Japan Responds to Western Imperialism

2301 Words Sep 11th, 2012 10 Pages
C. H.
HIS 351 Asia in Age of Decolonization and Globalization
August 2012

Western imperialism or expansion ignored a country’s sovereign right to self-rule and independence from dominant foreign powers. Using the premise of colonization or Manifest Destiny, the search for trade routes, raw goods and materials, and cheap sources of labor legitimized imperialistic might. Whether it was the undiscovered countries of the Americas, the dark continent of Africa, or the countries of Asia, the response to the encroachment of Western Imperialism would be filled with meek acceptance, opposition, rebellions, and eventual violence. As Western Imperialism penetrated the Asian countries
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A second Opium War broke out in 1856 which also ended in a British and French victory and increased rights for all foreigners. As external pressure from foreign and western powers continue to grow, the Qing court faced internal dissension. Some government leaders called for reforms based be on Western ways while traditionalists continued to call for total rejection. China was attacked by many foreign nations; after each conflict treaty negotiations gave these nations control of China’s economy. In 1899, with the approval of Britain and other European nations, the United States Secretary of State John Hayes secured American trading rights by opening the ports to all countries and introduced the principle of an Open Door to American businesses in China. Secretary Hayes’ Open Door policy reflected a form of western economic expansion called informal empire; the United States did not want Chinese territory but instead wanted access to Chinese markets (Boyer, et. al., 2011). China, its economy, and its people were at the mercy of multiple foreign powers. The Chinese people’s frustration festered and grew; anti-Western Imperialism and anti-foreign feelings simmered and stoked by the dowager empress of the Qing dynasty who hated the West’s growing influence. Peasants and workers

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