Chikungunya Virus Case Study

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Therefore, we grasped that we had an epidemic on our hands. Patients who came to the hospital for care reported that symptoms began to appear between three to seven days after been bitten. The chief complaints were fever and joint pains and to a lesser extent were headaches, muscle pain, joint swelling and rash which were variable among patients (PAHO & WHO, 2014). Based on observation from the patients who seek medical attention, the disease was most common in the elderly, very young and immunocompromised. Although rarely fatal, it can be severe. Long term disabling effects like joint pain are still persistent among residents today. In rare circumstances, the disease can even be fatal in the elderly, sick individuals and children (PAHO & WHO, …show more content…
From laboratory research and data, understanding is that the body’s immune system initiates an antibody response of IgM and IgG antibodies against the virus. Thus, serological or blood test and ELISA is use to diagnose the disease. These tests look for the presence of immunoglobulins. Reverse transcriptase PCR is use in labs for diagnosis because the virus is an alpha virus, single strand RNA (WHO, 2015). Once infected, the virus first travels via the blood stream and lymph and multiplies in the lymph nodes, liver, spleen and muscles. Ultimately, the virus wishes to travel to target cells such as epithelial cells and connective tissues of joints and skeletal muscles, where they will replicate even more (Srivastava et al, 2008, pp. 510). The reason for joint pain being the chief complaint is because of the persistence of viruses in the joint and muscle tissues. Hence, when the body realizes the threat, it activates its immune system recruiting macrophages, natural killer cells, T-lymphocytes (CD4 and CD8) cells and inflammatory mediators. This then initiates an inflammatory response resulting in fever (Miranda et al, 2013, pp …show more content…
Thus many cases were not diagnosed. Another challenge was that of the strong traditional folklore and spiritual culture. With a new disease introducing itself to the island, we grew scared, loads of people getting sick with a disease no one has ever seen before and we have no cure. It was like some sort of plague from ancient times. Hence, it is believed that the disease propagated faster through the population because the residents did not want to accept that mosquitoes were the cause of transmission, therefore they were reluctant to take the necessary steps for prevention (Caribbean360, 2014). As well as the simple lives of the inhabitants, whether by choice or because of poverty, played a crucial part in helping the distribution of the disease. In this fashion, it can be concluded that poverty is a factor which contributes to the prospering of the virus and in turn the disease causes poverty. Discussed earlier was that the disease can cause long-term disability which is seen throughout the population. This ill-fated outcome can prevent people from working and so can drive families to poverty. The disease can directly affect productivity (Caribbean360, 2014), as workers cannot attend their jobs because of illness, and as a result there was an immediate impact on the island’s economy. The private sector

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