Chiang Kai-Shek Case Study

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In the 1945, Chiang Kai-shek was respected by the Chinese people and the international community as a national leader who leaded China victory toward Japan. However, three years later, Chiang was defeated by Mao Ze-dong and withdrew his army to Taiwan. This power transformation was not done overnight. Since the success of the Northern Expedition, Chiang’s government had been facing many difficult issues. In 1937, the Anti-Japanese War was weaken Chiang’s government even more. Around the same time, because of using the right straight, the Chinese Communist Party was getting stronger and stronger under Mao’s leadership. Chiang did not realize that and still decided to fight a civil war in 1945. Therefore, the defeat of Chiang was because Chiang …show more content…
After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist party successfully unified China. Some historians called this as 10 golden years because Chiang set up a central government in Nanjing and enforced a lot of new program to modernize China. However, in fact, Chiang faced with many difficult challenges. First, Chiang still did not completely control China. During the North Expedition, he played a lot of warlord politics, such as exchanging office post or local authority for loyalty. These warlords were very unstable and might turned against Chiang in some critical moment. Chiang had to build up his own army. He had a very well-trained German style military. Though this policies, Chiang was able to “stop the warlord period’s trend toward territorial fragmentation”, but it was a very slow and not completely successful process. In 1930, the faction in the Nationalist party and some warlords fought a war with Chiang. This war was called the Central Plains War. At the end, Chiang needed Zhang Xueliang, another warlord, to stabilize the situation. Until 1934, Chiang only controlled seven out if eighteen …show more content…
After the Xian incident, the Nationalist party and the CCP formed a second United Front against Japan. Mao knew that this was a best chance to expand his forces while Chiang was too busy for fighting against Japan. Mao said, “Our fixed policy should be 70 percent expansion, 20 percent dealing with the Kuomintang, and 10 percent resisting Japan.” At the same time, Chiang still did not trust the CCP. He sent his best troops to blockade the Communist area. In other words, Chiang would fight a civil war after the Anti-Japanese war. This blockade did not hurt Mao, but helped the Communist movement in Yenan. By ignoring the Japanese forces, Mao had more time to address his land reform to the peasants and to encourage them to get into politics. A lot of western observer praised Mao’s model will become the future of China. In July 1936, Edgar Snow, a foreign journalist, broke into the blockade and entered the Communist area. Although he used to say think that Chinese Communism is a form of “Agrarian Communism”, after visiting Yenan, Snow changed his mind that “the Chinese had developed a unique and indigenous brand of communism.” In terms of military, because the mobilization of the peasant, the Communist troop included a lot of high spiritual soldiers to fight for the land and the better future. Theodor White, an American journalist, described the Red soldiers in 1943 “about the best nourished troops I had yet

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