Chiang Kai-Shek And The Defeat Of Mao II

Improved Essays
In the 1945, Chiang Kai-shek was respected by the Chinese people and the international community as a national leader who leaded China victory toward Japan. However, three years later, Chiang was defeated by Mao Ze-dong and withdrew his army to Taiwan. This power transformation was not done overnight. Since the success of the Northern Expedition, Chiang’s government had been facing many difficult issues. In 1937, the Anti-Japanese War was weaken Chiang’s government even more. Around the same time, because of using the right straight, the Chinese Communist Party was getting stronger and stronger under Mao’s leadership. Chiang did not realize that and still decided to fight a civil war in 1945. Therefore, the defeat of Chiang was because Chiang …show more content…
In the 1910s, Chiang built up a lot of connection in Shanghai when he was still a stockbroker. Chiang used this as his financial base. He relied on the support from the city. During Nanjing decade, the Nationalists government almost only receive customs revenues and commercial tax. Nevertheless, Chiang was keep on fighting the warlords and the communists. His military expenses had been increasing each year. Chiang asked the bankers and financiers to contribute to his military campaigns. Although they already denoted 3 million yuan to Chiang, it was not enough. Chiang then forced them to contribute more. A western observer wrote, “Wealthy Chinese would be arrested on their homes or mysteriously disappear from the street. Under no previous regime in modern times had Shanghai known such a reign of terror.” Using forces still could not balance the budget. Hsu pointed out that from 1928 to 1935, the nationalist government never achieve a fiscal balance, “but subsisted on deficit spending.” Chiang’s government chose to print more money to pay off its debt. This method created hyperinflation in the beginning of the civil war. Though out the Nanking decade, although Chiang built up a central government and had been doing certain type of reform for modern china, he faced a lot of difficulties. In terms of politics, he was too busy to fight with the warlords and kept them loyal; in terms of the economy, …show more content…
After the Xian incident, the Nationalist party and the CCP formed a second United Front against Japan. Mao knew that this was a best chance to expand his forces while Chiang was too busy for fighting against Japan. Mao said, “Our fixed policy should be 70 percent expansion, 20 percent dealing with the Kuomintang, and 10 percent resisting Japan.” At the same time, Chiang still did not trust the CCP. He sent his best troops to blockade the Communist area. In other words, Chiang would fight a civil war after the Anti-Japanese war. This blockade did not hurt Mao, but helped the Communist movement in Yenan. By ignoring the Japanese forces, Mao had more time to address his land reform to the peasants and to encourage them to get into politics. A lot of western observer praised Mao’s model will become the future of China. In July 1936, Edgar Snow, a foreign journalist, broke into the blockade and entered the Communist area. Although he used to say think that Chinese Communism is a form of “Agrarian Communism”, after visiting Yenan, Snow changed his mind that “the Chinese had developed a unique and indigenous brand of communism.” In terms of military, because the mobilization of the peasant, the Communist troop included a lot of high spiritual soldiers to fight for the land and the better future. Theodor White, an American journalist, described the Red soldiers in 1943 “about the best nourished troops I had yet

Related Documents

  • Superior Essays

    One is imperialism, the other is feudalism (Zedong N.pag.). The Chinese people had doubt about Mao and his As Mao attempted to transform the entire society, it became known that his leadership skills were lacking. Mao started to take children out of schooling and train them to become soldiers, and during the training and transition, many of the kids died from starvation and malnutrition. The Chinese economy looked like it was on the verge of a total collapse, but the publishing of the Little Red Book full of Mao’s Quotes and concepts gave people a sense of hope (Gifford 30). Mao used his power to reshape the way the Chinese society…

    • 1314 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    From 1949 through 1976, Mao Zedong ruled China under a Communist form of government. Throughout Mao’s reign, a number disasterous military, economic, and social endeavors should have buried him politically. Some of these endeavors include China’s involvement in the Korean War, the Great Leap Forward, division of the Communist party, and relations with the Soviet Union and the United States. However, his popularity and role as the ultimate leader kept Mao in power, so much so as to spark the Cultural Revolution that left China in a state of chaos. Before top Communist party members began this era of civil strife and weak foreign affairs, Mao and his closest followers tried to reform Chinese industry and way of living.…

    • 926 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    This crippled their work force due to the abuse of Opium and the new slump the people felt because of it. With all that going on, China could not do a single thing to stop it. Their military was miniscule in power compared to Great Britain. This sent a realization after the war to China, a realization to industrialize and to improve, to westernize. The Opium War hurt relations between the two countries, but Great Britain and China became closer tied due to the realization for industrialization.…

    • 836 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Despite the best efforts of the Japanese Ambassadors and American Secretary during negotiations, it seems the path to war had been set. The Japanese believed East Asia would crumble without their support, that they were the stabilizing force. Even while in talks with the Americans, Japan was preparing their Army and Navy for open hostilities. Undeterred by four years of hardship, they took for granted the support of their people in this endeavor. They posited that their demands were weak and should not be met with opposition and supposed the United States had an ulterior motive in regard to China, a key piece in the negotiations.…

    • 800 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    1. How did Chiang Kai-shek lose control of China? Chiang Kai-shek lost control of China not because of the intervention of foreign powers, but due to the various domestic problems in China. Although the CCP received assistance from the Soviet Union and Stalin’s advice to overthrow the Nationalists, it only contributed to the Communists’ victory by a small amount. This was because Chiang’s Nationalist government angered both the peasants and middle class due to the government’s inability to solve economic problems and rising inflation.…

    • 734 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Notably, this was due to the hostility and growing resistance in the United States over their participation in the war. Nixon wished to improve relations with communist China Additionally, the economy of America was suffering exceedingly from budget deficits and inflation. Nixon was a realist and notably recognized the strength of the Viet Cong and accepted that the US would not prosper in the war. Accordingly, he aspired to end America’s involvement in the war. However, negotiations in Paris proved arduous and laborious with Nixon using the Chinese to pressurise the North Vietnamese.…

    • 1926 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In Chinese history, a time period when people’s interest in democratic ideas was a danger to the government was early and mid 20th century. Starting in early 1900’s, Chinese Nationalist Party grew and their domination of power was stabilizing until some problems began to emerge. The Nationalist Party was not capable of handling problems of peasants’ and therefore, at the same time, the opposing side gained support. People viewed the current government as corrupted and ineffective. The government kept being indifferent to the Japanese expansion in the west, but the communist party gave the people hope to solve the foreign affairs and the domestic ones, too.…

    • 1197 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    If China develops, it will develop into a better, stronger country, but they are holding on to their past which holds them back from doing so. Speaking up and mentioning these topics had major consequences even though the emperor was the one who had asked for it. In 1900, led by the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, a secret Chinese organization, the boxers started a rebellion which became known as the Boxer rebellion. They practised the art of shadow boxing which they thought would make them able to withstand bullets, which was not the case when they actually went to war. Their goal was to rid China of all foreigners and Christianity.…

    • 880 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Chiang Kai-Shek Movement

    • 1179 Words
    • 5 Pages

    However, they were also dissatisfied with the Nationalist government as it seemed like nothing was being done to stop Japan for gaining control of China. The Nationalist government was still involved with the Communist Party and trying to stop its success and growth. The strategy of “internal unity before external danger” was adopted after the mutiny at Xi’an by the Nationalist troops that had been ousted by the Japanese from Manchuria. (NCL 21) Shortly after this the Chinese under the united Nationalist and Communist forces turned their attention to pushing Japan out. However, Japan was still making gains against the united forces of China.…

    • 1179 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    Japan The 20's Analysis

    • 1398 Words
    • 6 Pages

    From the very start, liberal ideology, and the politicians espousing it, were fighting an uphill battle against a disapproving society. This is not to say that the rise of Japanese fascism was inevitable, or that the diet achieved nothing in the 20’s. Just that nearly universal feelings of strong nationalism (and with it dedication to the emperor), the gilded promises of the military, widespread bitterness at diet politics and business ties, and the economic collapse of 29/30 made for an environment that the ideals of liberalism could not adapt to. So they…

    • 1398 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays