Characteristics Of Romanticism In Poem

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All these characteristics of romanticism that were shaped by the evolutionary changes made by the composers were also appeared in the requiems of the time. Requiem was now an independent musical form; the form of the concert requiem, which replaced the traditional liturgical one.
The romantic requiems were performing in the concert halls and opera stages, and that was mainly because of their extended length. Although some composers such as Gounod, Liszt, Faure and Bruckner followed the traditional requiem length, most of romantic composers wrote longer compositions for one hour and more. Berlioz’s and Verdi’s requiems exceed one hour and the Dvorak’s one last for two hours.
The period’s new form of program music appeared in requiem masses.
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However, Liszt, Berlioz and Bruckner used the Kyrie part more like a coda of the Introit. Agnus Dei and Communion parts were combining with the same idea of a united movement. As the Dies Irae is the longest part of the whole requiem text, many composers chose to divide it into smaller parts and compose separate movements. At the same time though, some romantics decided to include all verses in one musical movement, such as Bruckner and Verdi. The Libera me text is omitted from the romantic requiems, in contrast with the Pie Jesu text which was composed as an independent movement instead being part of the Dies Irae.
Another characteristic of the era was the element of the nationalism which can be found also in requiem masses. An example is the Berlioz’s requiem where is scored for a very large orchestra, including four brass bands at the corners of the stage, as well as more than twenty percussion players, which was traditionally used during the French revolution. Dvorak, in the opening phrase of Recordare used a melody of a folk song. Nationalism components there are also in Verdi’s and Rossini’s
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They also composed works upon commission for specific purposes. In the case of requiem masses, the Dvorak’s requiem was commissioned by the England’s Birmingham festival, and Berlioz received sponsorship for the premiere of his requiem.
The vocal parts of the romantic requiems had more technical difficulties comparing with earlier settings. The degree of difficulty required virtuoso singers for both vocal and choral parts because of the complex choral lines, the high notes, the extensive range of dynamics and the intense dramatic interpretation. Romantic composers included vocal solos, duets, trios and quartets in their requiems, which were composed in the form of virtuoso aria or operatic recitative. The choral score was still written for the four-part SATB with variations such as SSAATTBB, SSAATB, SATTBB and SAATTB.
The richest harmony has been applied to the requiem settings of the era as well. Romantics used chromatic harmony and enharmonic modulations. The use of keys with five or more sharps/flats was very common at this time. Romantic requiems contained tempo, dynamics and key changes. Is very important to mention, that romantic composers gave very precise indications for their compositions; all the exact tempi, dynamics, articulation marks and changes are written on their

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