Characteristics Of Pervaporation And Distillation

Improved Essays
According to Ahmad S.A. and Lone S.R. “Hybrid Process (Pervaporation-Distillation)”, Distillation is a separation technique, in which a feed mixture of different components is separated into two or more reaction products by collecting the overhead distillate, formed as vapor or a mix of vapor and liquid, and keeping the remaining liquid solution in the reaction container. To achieve this: firstly, the feed has to contain a liquid or a mix of vapor-liquid mixture at the start of the reaction. Secondly, These different components in the feed mixture require to have different volatilities, so they will separate in gas phases when the temperature has reached their boiling points. All in all, distillation is achieved by vaporization and condensation …show more content…
Naturally, PV display the following characteristics:
1. PV can also be used for the removal of certain components in equilibrium reactions.
2. Polymer membrane compaction, a frequent problem in high-pressure gas separation, is not encountered in pervaporation because the feed pressure is typically low.[8]
3. The permeate pressure has to be always lower than the saturation pressure of the permeant to achieve separation.[9]
4. Desorption of the component at the permeate side of the membrane. [10]
2.3 Operating Principles of distillation:
The basic principle of distillation is to bring a liquid into close contact with vapour so that the mass transfer between the two current phases can take place. The goal of each system to reach a state of equilibrium is based on the driving force for the mass transfer.[11]
When the vapour pressure matches the surrounding pressure that’s when a liquid begins to boil. The principle on which a liquid boils depends on its volatility. Liquids with high vapour pressures will boil at lower temperatures. Distillation is accomplished because of the differences in the volatility of the components in a liquid

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    This experimental study deduced that the temperature gradient destabilizes the free surface. This means that when the temperature gradients occur the substance tends to evaporate easily. This provokes a higher instability at the interface (which means a decrease in the surface tension). Also, depending on the alcohol studying, in this article, turbulence begins at the interface at different temperature gradients. The instability starts near the interface and causes a sinuous movement to the interface.…

    • 899 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    However, this temperature was lower than the boiling point of acetone, the most volatile solvent possibly present in the unknown solution, pointing to a source of error in the measurement of the temperature. This could have been due to an inaccurate thermometer or to an error in placing the thermometer too high. Because the boiling point was so low, the more volatile solvent was estimated to be acetone, which has a boiling point of 56.5°C. After fraction A was collected, the temperature of the stillpot was increased and should have produced a steady increase in a plot of the temperature versus total volume distilled while fraction B (a mixture of the two components) was collected, until a second plateau at the boiling point of the less volatile component. The temperature of the stillpot needed to be increased after collecting fraction A because the liquid left in the stillpot was then composed of a higher percentage of the less volatile component, with a correspondingly higher vapor pressure, meaning that it would boil at a higher temperature.…

    • 958 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Distillation Lab Report

    • 1011 Words
    • 5 Pages

    On the other hand, fractional distillation separates two volatile liquids in order to achieve two purified components. In the case of this experiment, fractional distillation is used as the unknown liquids were thought to have similar boiling points. Fractional distillation utilizes a temperature gradient to ensure that the more volatile component…

    • 1011 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In the Carnot cycle all the heat transfer is at constant temperature, and therefore the vapor is superheated in process 3–3. Note, however, that during this process the pressure is dropping, which means that the heat must be transferred to the vapor as it undergoes an expansion process in which work is done. This heat transfer is also very difficult to achieve in practice. Thus, the Rankine cycle is the ideal cycle that can be approximated in practice. In the following sections, we will consider some variations on the Rankine cycle that enable it to approach more closely the efficiency of the Carnot…

    • 766 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Free liquid in the gas, when in contact with the heated RTD, seriously affects the performance of the flow meter. 4. Some thermal mass flow meters have a very slow response time. The required response time shall be specified. 4.6.3 Installation Requirements 1.…

    • 1420 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The pressure difference allows to determine the rate of fluid or discharging flow through the pipe line. Since the inlet venturi is larger than throat venturi, it leads the increasing of velocity at the throat, resulting in decrease of pressure. As a result, we can see the different level between the tubes, which means the pressure difference between the inlet and the throat of the venturi. . In our experiment, the lowest pressure was measured at manometer D where it’s the least cross sectional area at the point.…

    • 1238 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    As hydrocarbons are being extracted, the pressure gradient decreases. The pressure gradient will eventually decrease to a point where there won’t be any more pressure to maintain the flow of the fluid. At this point, injection wells would be utilized to increase the pressure by injecting water and gas (Lund). Besides pressure determining how fast the fluid will flow, there are other factors to consider such as permeability, permeability direction, and viscosity. A higher permeable reservoir needs less pressure to match the flow rate of a low permeable reservoir.…

    • 2185 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The continuous reaction causes the solution change to vapour phase. So, in order to keep the solution in liquid phase, the temperature of the solution have to be control since the propylene oxides low…

    • 854 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Viscosity is depended on how densely the individual lipid molecules are packed together and this is affected by the composition of the lipid molecules that make up the membrane and the temperature of the surrounding. In high temperature, the membrane is said to be more fluid than in lower temperature. It is because, in high temperature, the phospholipid is further from each other because they have higher kinetic energy. Therefore, the further the phopholipid between each other, the fluidity the membrane is. Besides that, fatty acids of the lipid that composed of saturated hydrocarbon tend to have straight shape so it will pack more tightly.…

    • 1702 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Copper Gta Welding

    • 1640 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Schematic of the physical model for the susceptibility of hot cracking during copper GTA welding. (I). Free crystalline region The actual line of S-L is lower compared with its corresponding theoretical line because of the influence of under cooling and low-melting eutectic. The α-Cu is crystallized from the liquids when the welding pool cools down the actual line of S-L. In this region, the size of α-Cu is smaller and the quantity of α-Cu is fewer.…

    • 1640 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays