Fingerprint formation is induced by the stresses and strains experienced by the fetus in utero, which are random and infinite, it is likely that they subsequently produce a random, infinite variety of friction ridge patterns (Gutiérrez-Redomero, and Alonso-Rodríguez, 2013).
Fingerprints are classified into ﬁve major common classes: Arch, Tented Arch, Left Loop, Right Loop and Whorl as shown at figure (1) (Cao et al., 2013).
Figure 1: Major five classes of fingerprints: …show more content…
Minutiae characteristics are local discontinuities in the fingerprint pattern and represent the most prominent local ridge characteristics: terminations and bifurcations. A ridge termination is defined as the point where a ridge ends abruptly, while ridge bifurcation is defined as the point where a ridge forks or diverges into branch ridges as figure (2) shows. A typical fingerprint image contains about 40–100 minutiae (Feng, 2008).
Figure 2: Minutiae of finger print (ridge ending and bifurcation) (Greenberg et al., 2000).
Analysis of fingerprints has been simplified if obeyed to Edmond Locard’s tripartite rule. The tripartite rule is as follows:
• Positive identifications are possible when there are more than 12 minutiae within sharp quality fingermarks.
• If 8–12 minutiae are present, the case is borderline. Certainty of identity depends on additional information such as finger mark quality, rarity of pattern, presence of the core, delta(s), and pores, and ridge shape characteristics.
• If a limited number of minutiae are present, the fingermarks cannot provide certainty for an identification, but only a presumption of strength proportional to the number of minutiae (Vanderkolk, …show more content…
During postmortem fingerprint recovery, the decedent’s fingers may be difficult if decomposition and other postmortem changes occurred (Mulawka and Miller, 2014).
2) Palm print
Two possible biometric features can be extracted from human hands. First, hand-shape geometrical features such as finger width, length, and thickness. Second feature involves the principle lines, wrinkles, and ridges on a palm. Comparing with the palm shape features of suspected is the basis of identification in such cases (Han et al., 2003). The palm is divided into several zones and recording the epidermal ridge density which is unique to each individual (Gutiérrez-Redomero, and Alonso-Rodríguez, 2013). These zones are illustrated in figure (3).
Figure 3: Palmer configurational areas and ridge count digital areas. The palm is classified into four major groups (Gutiérrez-Redomero, and Alonso-Rodríguez, 2013). Palm print authentication has several advantages, low-resolution imaging, low-intrusiveness, stable line features and low-cost capturing device. Palm print covers wider area than fingerprint and it contains abundance of useful information for recognition. palm print system does not require very high resolution capturing device as the principal lines and wrinkles can be observed under low-resolution images (Michael et al.,