Characteristics Of Fingerprints

Improved Essays
Fingerprints have been widely used throughout the world as means of identification for forensic purposes. Forensic experts have extensively relied on premises that fingerprint characteristics are highly discriminatory and immutable amongst the general population (Haber and Haber, 2008).
Fingerprint formation is induced by the stresses and strains experienced by the fetus in utero, which are random and infinite, it is likely that they subsequently produce a random, infinite variety of friction ridge patterns (Gutiérrez-Redomero, and Alonso-Rodríguez, 2013).
Fingerprints are classified into five major common classes: Arch, Tented Arch, Left Loop, Right Loop and Whorl as shown at figure (1) (Cao et al., 2013).
Figure 1: Major five classes of fingerprints:
…show more content…
Minutiae characteristics are local discontinuities in the fingerprint pattern and represent the most prominent local ridge characteristics: terminations and bifurcations. A ridge termination is defined as the point where a ridge ends abruptly, while ridge bifurcation is defined as the point where a ridge forks or diverges into branch ridges as figure (2) shows. A typical fingerprint image contains about 40–100 minutiae (Feng, 2008).

Figure 2: Minutiae of finger print (ridge ending and bifurcation) (Greenberg et al., 2000).

Analysis of fingerprints has been simplified if obeyed to Edmond Locard’s tripartite rule. The tripartite rule is as follows:
• Positive identifications are possible when there are more than 12 minutiae within sharp quality fingermarks.
• If 8–12 minutiae are present, the case is borderline. Certainty of identity depends on additional information such as finger mark quality, rarity of pattern, presence of the core, delta(s), and pores, and ridge shape characteristics.
• If a limited number of minutiae are present, the fingermarks cannot provide certainty for an identification, but only a presumption of strength proportional to the number of minutiae (Vanderkolk,
…show more content…
During postmortem fingerprint recovery, the decedent’s fingers may be difficult if decomposition and other postmortem changes occurred (Mulawka and Miller, 2014).
2) Palm print

Two possible biometric features can be extracted from human hands. First, hand-shape geometrical features such as finger width, length, and thickness. Second feature involves the principle lines, wrinkles, and ridges on a palm. Comparing with the palm shape features of suspected is the basis of identification in such cases (Han et al., 2003). The palm is divided into several zones and recording the epidermal ridge density which is unique to each individual (Gutiérrez-Redomero, and Alonso-Rodríguez, 2013). These zones are illustrated in figure (3).
Figure 3: Palmer configurational areas and ridge count digital areas. The palm is classified into four major groups (Gutiérrez-Redomero, and Alonso-Rodríguez, 2013). Palm print authentication has several advantages, low-resolution imaging, low-intrusiveness, stable line features and low-cost capturing device. Palm print covers wider area than fingerprint and it contains abundance of useful information for recognition. palm print system does not require very high resolution capturing device as the principal lines and wrinkles can be observed under low-resolution images (Michael et al.,

Related Documents

  • Great Essays

    It is simple to use and the data is easier to collect. It has been described as less intrusive that regular fingerprinting and environmental factor are not an issue. However, this biometric authentication is not unique and is not ideal for identification systems. The data size of hand geometry is huge, and data storage capacity for most organizations will probably need to be increased. Although this system is easy to use and less expensive than the others, there are some limitations.…

    • 1456 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The differences between the intradermal test and prick test were not statistically significant. Using both tests improved predictability by 67% (tau=0.67, p<0.001). Fisher and Bowey (1997) concluded that in the absence of data to support one test being superior, other factors influence the choice of test. Intradermal testing may be easier for the infrequent user. Skin testing is valuable in the investigation of anaesthetic anaphylaxis whichever test is chosen.…

    • 1949 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    Finger image or raw finger image is enhanced, preprocess, and feature extracted including minutia, valley and ridge structure to improve quality and speed of recognition. I select FFT in my project for fingerprint recognition .some time the input finger image are not satisfy the certain condition of FFT such as feature of finger image are store in database but coefficient vector of that image are larger then the pervious store image then the FFT method do not understand that image vector and not work properly. FFT is very reliable and accurate method for fingerprint recognition. I select FFT method for Fingerprint recognition in my project because it is a more reliable method and fast calculation .The implement of FFT method are very robust and…

    • 5539 Words
    • 23 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Human DNA Fingerprinting

    • 1690 Words
    • 7 Pages

    According to http://www.encyclopedia.com, DNA which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid is used for human genetic makeup. It has different sequences of bases and exist in human body. The sequence of it nucleotides are A, T, G, C; or, adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. A DNA fingerprinting, is a DNA pattern that has a unique sequence such that it can be distinguished from the DNA patterns of other individual. The two major uses for the information is for personal identification and for the determination of paternity.…

    • 1690 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Analysis Of Variance

    • 1822 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Interestingly, the mean amplitude of Graph 2 shows slightly a significant change between modality, the paired samples t-test provided no significant effect except FC2. The source memory over FC2 was the most positive waveform of FN400 than others (Graph 2). Thus, it has been found that acoustic brands had a larger negative amplitude than visual brands at FC2, even though the amplitudes not seen in this Graph 2 due to more positivity, paired samples t-test found a significant difference t(30) = 2.31, p = .028, but not at F1 t(30) =1.48, p = .153 (Figure 2, Graph 2). As a conclusion, the modality effect could not determine according to peak amplitude except FC2 which visual brands had larger positive peak than…

    • 1822 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The coefficient of determination moves from 0.01 to 0 (with rounding) for equations 2 and 3 and the Adjusted R2 is still negative at -0.02. This means that in these equations the linear relationship between my X and Y variables is even worse than the linear relationship for equation 1. In addition, there are no significant changes in the slope coefficients (β_1and γ_2) for X_1 and X_2. This indicates a consistency among my regressions that provides further evidence to accept my null hypothesis that the more contacts improve sale premia. At all levels of alpha and with all equations, the F-test requires that I accept the null hypotheses that H_0: α_1=0 and H_0: α_2=0.…

    • 1356 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The two types of most commonly used parity checking are simple parity and two-dimensional parity. Simple parity is used to check single-bit errors while two-dimensional parity check is used to check burst errors. Burst errors mean two or more bits in the data has changed. Single Parity Check An even parity bit is generated by counting the number of 1s. If the number of 1s is odd, then the even parity bit will have a value of 1, otherwise the parity bit will be 0.…

    • 727 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines a match when all 13 STR regions are identical with the sample. If so is the case, the culprit (or some other suspect) is virtually always identified. Only one STR mismatch, however, offsets the entire analysis, and therefore is enough to rule out a potential suspect (unless other evidence is found). Advantages DNA Profiling DNA profiling has almost absolute certainty of correctly identifying an individual. In fact, the chance of a false match are around one out of a billion (0.0000001% chance).…

    • 916 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Distance And Age Of M52

    • 1078 Words
    • 4 Pages

    The uncertainty in the main sequence recorded the maximum value 15.00 and minimum value 9.00 in Y-axis which gives 15.00-9.00 = ± 6.00. Now we need to plug all known values in equation 1 to calculate distance in parsec as below: d = 10 (8.8-0.70+5-0.03) /5 = 10 2.6 = 398.10 ± 6.00 parsec= 392.10 parsec × (3.261 light year/ 1 parsec) = 1278.86 light year= 1.279 × 103 light year The published distance for M39 is 326 parsec (Mavers, 1940). To calculate the percentage error, using equation 2 we get Gives us percentage error = ((392.10-326)/326) ×100 Percentage error = 20.27 %. The turnoff point located at 8.8 indicating the rough age of the M39 cluster. Also, points lying lower than the 16th magnitude below to the left of the Main Sequence for M39 are considered to be interpolar…

    • 1078 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    If task is complex the outcome could be questionable. Multivariate Pattern analysis (MVPA) is a method relies on the idea of combining the data from multiple voxels to decode activation patterns. Activation in a region is weak or similar across conditions, but the pattern over voxels is informative. Limitation of MVPA is that it focuses on the patterns of activation and thus ignores interactions. A functional connectivity of a voxel may change even though it has stable activation across the conditions.…

    • 800 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays