1. Martin Luther- defended the monk against heresy and set the stage for a serious challenge to the authority of the Catholic Church, in which by no means was the first crisis in church's 1500 year history. 2. 14th century- severe economic reversals and social upheavals 3. 15th century- Renaissance: a revival of arts and letters 4. 16th century- Reformation: religious renaissance 5. Absolutism (absolute monarchy)- most evident during the reign of Louis XVI 6. 17th century - absolute and limited monarchy were the poles of state building 7. What were the main tenets of Lutheranism and Calvinism? How did they differ from each other and from Catholicism? 8. Protestant Reformation- religious movement that divided the western
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* During the next few years, Luther's movement began to grow and spread. It led to the Peasants' War. * Charles ruled the empire and wanted to maintain it religiously; he hoped to preserve the unity of his empire in the Catholic Faith. However, the internal political situation was not in his favor. * Luthranism was well-established and unable to defeat that, Charles was forced to negotiate a truce. * The division of Christianity was formally acknowledged; the Lutheran and Catholics states will have the same legal rights.
15. The Spread of the Protestant Reformation
* Switzerland was home to two major Reformation movements: Zwinglianism and Calvinism. * Ulrich Zwingli accepted an appointment as the cathedral priest, however his teachings caused much unrest that the city council decided to institute evangelical reforms. As his movement began to spread to other cities, he sought alliance with Martin Luther. Despite realizing the need for unity to defend against the opposition of the Catholic authorities, they were unable to agree on the interpretation of the Lord's Supper, the sacrament of communion. Zwingli was found wounded on the battlefield . * John Calvin published Institutes of the Christian Religion, a masterful synthesis of Protestant thought that immediately secured his reputation as one of the new leaders of Protestantism. He followed closely the teachings of Luther; however emphasized on the