Essay on Change Management
B E S T O F H BR
Leaders who successfully transform businesses do eight things right (and they do them in the right order).
Why Transformation Efforts Fail by John P Kotter
Included with this full-text Harvard Business Review article:
1 Article Summary
The Idea in Brief—the core idea
The Idea in Practice—putting the idea to work
2 Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail
10 Further Reading
A list of related materials, with annotations to guide further exploration of the article’s ideas and applications
BEST OF HBR
Why Transformation Efforts Fail
The Idea in Brief
The Idea in Practice
Most major change initiatives—whether intended to boost quality, improve …show more content…
• Becoming paralyzed by risks
Form a powerful guiding coalition • Assemble a group with shared commit- • No prior experience in teamwork at the top ment and enough power to lead the change eﬀort.
• Relegating team leadership to an HR, quality, or strategic-planning executive
• Encourage them to work as a team rather than a senior line manager outside the normal hierarchy.
Create a vision • Create a vision to direct the change eﬀort. • Presenting a vision that’s too complicat• Develop strategies for realizing that vision. ed or vague to be communicated in ﬁve minutes Communicate • Use every vehicle possible to commu- • Undercommunicating the vision the vision nicate the new vision and strategies for • Behaving in ways antithetical to the achieving it. vision • Teach new behaviors by the example of the guiding coalition.
others to act on the vision
• Failing to remove powerful individuals
• Remove or alter systems or structures who resist the change eﬀort undermining the vision.
• Encourage risk taking and nontraditional ideas, activities, and actions.
Plan for and create shortterm wins
• Deﬁne and engineer visible performance improvements.
• Recognize and reward employees contributing to those improvements.
Consolidate improvements and produce more change
• Declaring victory too soon—with the
• Use increased credibility from early