Challenges Of Nanotechnology
One challenge that might arise is the irregularity of the tumour vasculature where fluid pressure is too high, causing the transport nanoparticles to be compromised, affecting the efficiency of the drug delivery (Sinek et al., 2004). Other than abnormal features of tumour vasculature, there are cases where nanoparticles cannot penetrate through the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tumors (Kim, 2007). The inability to penetrate the ECM efficiently limits the nanoparticles therapeutic efficacy, as the nanoparticles are not able to affect tumour cells that are distant from the blood vessels (Kim, 2007).
In summary, nanotechnology have proven its effectiveness in drug delivery to cancer cells using organic (liposomes) and inorganic (AuNPs) nanoparticles platform as discussed above. Nanoparticles can be designed by modifying its properties that target specifically to cancer cells, and thus, enhancing the efficiency and efficacy of the therapeutic agents. However, the field of cancer nanotechnology still faces challenges that arise due to the abnormal features of tumour vasculature that may be solved in the future with advanced