Essay about Causes And Treatment Of Heart Attacks

1094 Words 5 Pages
Heart attacks, specifically attacks caused by blockage within the coronary artery, cause severe injury to cardiac muscle cells. These injured cells then become deficient and eventually die. This occurrence spurs repair and regenerative responses that extract dead cells and cellular debris and recruits immune cells to form new blood vessels. The main constituents of this repair process are fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are able to convert into cardiac endothelial cells through the activity of transcription factor p53. The human heart consists of myocytes and non-myocytes. The non-myocytes include cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial cells which generate growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins which are responsible for sustaining the heart’s normal framework, contraction, and general function. These growth factors and ECM proteins also interact with endothelial cells and myocytes to assist in angiogenesis (the formation of blood vessels) and to maintain physiological homeostasis. After any inflicted damage to the heart, fibroblasts are signaled to produce ECM proteins and soluble factors to compensate for architectural deformities, halt the spread of further damage, encourage cardiac rigidity, and prevent cardiac rupture. These activities altogether are termed fibrosis and serve to help remodel the heart musculature. The key to this process of fibrosis is controlling it; regulated fibrosis is imperative for restoring heart function following an injury to the cardiac…

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