Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against it own cells or tissues. Autoimmune disease is when the immune system mistakenly decides parts of the body as harmful cells and builds responses targeting it’s own healthy cells. There are many different autoimmune diseases, each affecting the body in different ways. One can have the same autoimmune disease as the other but it may show different symptoms. One of the prominent autoimmune diseases is Lupus, also known as Systemic lupus erythematosus.
Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease that can damage any part of the body (skin, joints, and/or organs inside the body). There are various forms of lupus. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus or lupus dermatitis is when the skin
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The number of autoantibodies associated with lupus increases, although their provenance and role in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The autoimmune response in SLE can target many cells and tissues; the antigens for this response are components of the cell nucleus. The antibodies seen against these antigens are called antinuclear antibodies. One of the factors that may contribute to autoimmune reactions is abnormality in apoptosis, the process where cells that are no longer needed or are a threat to the organism are destroyed by a tightly regulated cell suicide. Abnormalities in apoptotic mechanism can contribute to autoimmunity in different ways. Testing for ANA and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) are common approaches for the diagnosis of SLE. More than 95% of SLE patients have a positive ANA, but it can be detected in other conditions as well as in healthy person. Many people with a positive ANA do not suffer from SLE, higher titers are more definitive with SLE. Some of the most specific ANA for SLE are anti-dsDNA antibodies, which are valuable diagnostic and prognostic markers for the disease. Anti-dsDNA antibodies are associated with renal damage because the charge of this antigen is more likely to cause immune complex deposition and entrapment with associated inflammation in the kidney. Anti-sm antibodies are found almost exclusively in SLE because they are not commonly seen in other autoimmune diseases. Other autoantibodies in SLE include antibodies to the SS-A (Ro), SS-B (La) and anti-RNP (Rittenhouse-Olsen and De Nardin, 159). Antiphospholid antibodies (APLs) are present in up to 60% of people with lupus; its presence can help confirm a diagnosis. CRP is a protein that can be a marker of inflammation; presence of it could indicate active lupus. Complement levels are often low in patients with active

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