Case Study Of Competitive Control By An Insurgent Group

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4. Case Study of Competitive Control by an Insurgent Group: How the Theory Applies to The PKK
The PKK is mainly an ethno-nationalist based insurgent group. It was committed to the rights of the Kurdish people, to equipping them with necessary resources to defend their rights, and to ensure equality within the organization itself (Schoon 2015, p. 274). Among the contemporary insurgent groups, the PKK is termed as an ethnic insurgent and terrorist organization which is operating especially in the Middle East countries and the EU. The PKK is also active in eastern part of Turkey and Northern Iraq. The PKK was formed in 1974 inspired by the Marxist-Leninist ideology, till date the insurgent organisation aims to create an independent state for
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According to Bacik and Coskun (2011), although PKK have not achieved to secure an independent Kurdistan, it has achieved multiple successes. Over the three decades, it has emerged as the most prospective actor which is logistically powerful and symbolically potent representative of Kurds people in Turkey.
The PKK in Iraq is a small unit which stays outside the Iraqi politics and controls its own territory (Bloomberg View 2014). It is reported that the PKK is playing role in combatting the Islamic States (IS), thus according to the Bloomberg View (2014) the terrorist status of the PKK has been eroding and in this context it has to be recognised for the constructive role it can play in Iraq. It is also reported that the PKK troops are saving Yazidi refugees from becoming victim of the IS fighters (Bloomberg View
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As the country borders with eight countries, it provided the PKK an ideal condition for transhipment of heroin from the countries of Southwest Asia and Middle East into Europe. The organization followed very innovative and deeply rooted transfer nodes helped to move other illegal products to Europe adding challenges to the law enforcement agencies. The PKK’s highly networked criminal activities suggest a very hierarchical and centralized modus operandi. It successfully utilized its influence over local population also. The PKK became benefitted from the aggressive marketing initiatives through ethno-portals and satellite Televisions outlets such as Medya-TV and Roj TV (Eccarius-Kelly 2012). Eccarius-Kelly (2012, p. 247) mentioned as the military and criminal branches of the PKK operate in the same way to a shadow government in some provinces, over the years it has gained an incredible reputation as an influential regional actor. Although the PKK usually denies the allegation of its involvement in the illegal production and trade of drugs, but its operatives have been found involved in the trade and transhipment of drugs through PKK dominated region to

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