Blood usually flows through the heart silently, but when there is a swooshing or blowing sound heard upon auscultation it is referred to as turbulent blood flow (Weber & Kelley, 2014). This occurs in a variety of conditions such as increased blood velocity, structural valve defects, valve malfunctions, and abnormal chamber openings (Weber & Kelley, 2014).
The heart has four chambers two atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart and two ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart. They are then further divided into left and right. Between the upper and lower chambers there are valves to prevent backflow of blood. Between the right atrium and right ventricle tricuspid valve and between …show more content…
Preliminary orders that would be anticipated in this case study would be laboratory tests such as cardiac biomarker, lipid profile, cholesterol levels, triglycerides, coagulation studies, blood chemistry, and hematologic studies. Furthermore, an electrocardiogram (EKG), chest X-Ray, echocardiogram would be anticipated interventions for the patient. In addition, a stress test may be performed to evaluate the response of the cardiovascular system. Educating the patient on the need to sustain from smoking is imperative for their condition at this time. Smoking causes vasoconstriction and therefore decreases the oxygen supply to the heart muscle (Brunner & Smeltzer, 2010). Interventions used for risk for complication of decreased cardiac output would be to ensure proper monitoring of the patients heart rate and rhythm to ensure that the risk doesn’t turn into an actual diagnosis. It is important to notice a change in the hearts electrical impulse due to prolonged ischemia and infarction. EKG is also an important intervention for this collaborative nursing diagnosis. It allows for prompt detection of a conduction problem (Gulanick & Myers, 2014). Orders the physician may order would be fluids to help keep cardiac output at a normal