Cardiovascular Catheterization Case Study

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INTRODUCTION

Cardiac catheterization plays a vital role in the diagnosis and evaluation of coronary arteries diseases (CAD); More than 5 million diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations are performed each year in the United States for both the diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Although it has reduced morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular disease, this invasive procedure is not free of complications (Agostoni, Anselmi, Gasparini,& Tarbnsi, 2006).

The American College of Cardiology’s benchmark for the incidence of all cardiac catheterization complications is no more than 1% for diagnostic and 3% for interventional procedures (Bashore, et. al. 2007). However, the incidence of vascular access complications alone has ranged from 0.1% to 61%, depending on the definition of complications, the type of procedure, anticoagulation, closure devices, age, sex, and other patient co-morbidities. Vascular complications expose patients to additional discomfort, extended hospital stay, and higher hospital costs (Dumont et. al. 2006).

Preliminary work in this area suggested that increased age repeated intervention, using the same vascular access site, and anticoagulation medications may be an important factors contributing to the incidence
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It 's Incidence (0.2% to 2.1%) (Hamel, 2009).Arteriovenous fistula Can be asymptomatic, bruit and/or thrill at access site, Swollen, tender extremity, distal arterial insufficiency and/or deep venous thrombosis can result in limb ischemia, confirmed by ultrasound. Some arteriovenous fistulas resolve spontaneously without intervention, some arteriovenous fistulas require ultrasound guided compression or surgical repair (Odom,

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