Carboxylic Acid Experiment

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Abstract
Test Tube Carboxylic Acid Alcohol Ester Odor
1 Methanoic Acid 2-Methyl-1-propanol
2-Methyl-1- Propyl- Methanoate Raspberry

2 Glacial Ethanoic Acid Ethanol Ethyl Ethanoate Banana
3 Glacial Ethanoic Acid 1-Pentanol Pentyl Ethanoate Apple Cider Vinegar
4 Glacial Ethanoic Acid 1-Octanol Octyl Ethanoate Citrus
5 Salicylic Acid Methanol Methyl 2-Hydroxybenzoate Spearmint

1) Test Tube 1 had 2-Methyl-1-Propyl Methanoate in it. Test Tube 2 had Ethyl Ethanoate in it. Test Tube 3 had Pentyl Ethanoate in it. Test Tube 4 had Octyl Ethanoate in it Test Tube 5 had Methyl 2-Hydroxybenozoate in it.
2)
3) Water was added after the reaction since there is a difference in the solubility of acids, alcohols, and ester. Both the
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A high specific heat means that the water would have to be at a much higher temperature in order for the ester to be synthesized since there needed to be a temperature of around 60 to 70 degrees Celsius. From the aspect of creating esters, adding water would create much fewer esters. During the synthesis reaction the hydroxide group and a hydrogen form water as a byproduct and the remaining parts connect and create an ester. However, if there is water in the solution, the carboxylic acid and alcohol would reform from being hydrolyzed using an C-O bond and going right back to the original reactants creating very few …show more content…
By increasing the temperature, the esterification process will increase since the reaction is an endothermic reaction. Based upon Le Chatelier 's principle, a reaction tries to maintain an equilibrium state and since the reaction is endothermic, the more heat there is, the faster the reaction 's heat can be replenished. Furthermore, many of the esters have relatively low boiling points and if the esters boiled off, there would be a need to create more esters due to an imbalance of the products. Another way that there could be an increase in the amount of esters is to drain the water or use a catalyst. In the reaction, the sulfuric acid was both a dehydrating agent and a catalyst. The sulfuric acid removed some water which means that there is a shift towards the product sides by Le Chatelier 's principle. Finally, a catalyst could be added to increase the amount of products that can be formed by lowering the amount of energy it takes to start the reaction because it would lower the activation energy needed in order to start the reaction and this increases the chances that a molecule would have the energy in order to reform the bonds in order to create the

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