Carbohydrates Binding And Inhibition Study

Good Essays
The carbohydrates present on the cells surface can act as a receptor for many pathogens to facilitate cell-cell adhesion through which humans can be infected, for example, mannose binds pathogenic bacteria E. coli and sialic acid binds influenza virus. Therefore, cell surface can be mimicked by preparing SAMs of carbohydrates to study and understand different types of binding and inhibition studies in vitro. SAMs of carbohydrates are also used for detecting disease biomarkers and carrying drugs.

1.1. Carbohydrate-lectin interactions

The diverse arrangement of carbohydrate in biological molecules makes their study challenging. However, the ubiquitous presence of ten common monosaccharaides namely D-glucose (D-Glc), D-mannose (D-Man), D-galactose
…show more content…
coli was through the multiple binding to lipopolysaccharides (O-antigen) exposed on cell wall of E. coli. LOD for mannose/Con A sensor was improved down to 7.5 × 102 cells/mL from 3.0 × 107 cells/mL for mannose-alone sensor. Similarly, four decades wider linear range (7.5 × 102 –7.5 × 107 cells/mL) was found for the mannose/Con A based sensor compared to mannose-alone QCM sensor (107). In detecting E. coli on mannose terminated SAMs, it is always preferred to have minimum nonspecific interaction for better selectivity and specificity of the detector. Grabosch et. al. introduced a dual click chemistry strategy for creating a biorepulsive background with the exposed mannose terminal SAMs (23). A polyethylene glycol linker having azide and amine terminal groups was used to support dual click reactions. Azides react with alkynes to form triazole ligation products and amines react with isothiocyanate to form thiourea bridges where the other ends of alkyne and isothiocyanate consist of thiol head group and terminal mannose, respectively. The SAMs of mannose prepared by this dual click strategy was found to be very effective in reducing the nonspecific interactions while specifically and selectively capturing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged E. coli strain (pPKL1162) evident by epifluorescence micrographs with and without terminal mannose, Figure XYZ. The same strand of E. coli was also successfully detected on self-assembled dendritic monolayer (SADM) having disulfide cores using SPR and resonance-enhanced surface impedance (RESI) (22). Generation 1 dendrimer having four terminal mannoses was found to have binding efficiency of approximately 3600 cells·(pmol of Man)−1 whereas generation 3 dendrimer having 16 terminal mannose have binding efficiency of 4200 cells·(pmol of Man)−1. In this work, binding efficiency of generation three dendrimer having terminal mannoses and hydroxides groups to E. coli was also compared showing that mannose

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Mannitol Salt Agar

    • 1936 Words
    • 8 Pages

    If a microbe cannot produce DNase, the agar remains green. Another differential test that was done was the coagulase test. This test differentiates between microbes that can convert fibrinogen into fibrin(clotting). If clotting is present, then the microbe is coagulase positive; otherwise the microbe is coagulase negative. The catalase test differentiates between microbes than can produce the enzyme catalase or not.…

    • 1936 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    A regioselective synthesis of 6-amino-6-deoxycellulose, 6-N-sulfonated, and 6-N-carboxymethylated deoxycellulose were described by C. Liu et. al, by replacement of the C-6 tosyl groups by azide groups, that were reduced by (LiAlH4) to the corresponding amino group. The amino functionalized cellulose underwent further sulfonation, and carboxylation, scheme 3183. Novel…

    • 911 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    (1) They can be installed by peracylation of the nucleoside followed by chemoselective O-deacylation (Schaller et al., 1963 ; Rigoli et al., 2009). (2) “Transient” protection approach (Ti et al., 1982) has been widely used. In this procedure, the nucleoside is persilylated using a silylating agent, and the acyl function is installed on the amino group using the corresponding acid chloride or acid anhydride. (3) Some acyl functions such as benzoyl, α-phenylcinnamoyl, and naphthaloyl are directly incorporated on the nucleobase using the corresponding anhydride (Watanabe and Fox, 1966; Bhat et al., 1989). Zhu et al.…

    • 1630 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The free amino analogue of venlafaxine (VF-II) also shows potential activity against some bacteria/ fungi. The synthesis of VF-II carried out by the novel method using a unique combination of NaBH4 /CoCl2 as a reducing agent for reduction of nitrile group. We have herein reported the coupling product of the free amino derivative of venlafaxine (VF-II) with N-phthaloyl derivatives of the amino acid (1a-1g/2a-2g) i.e. carboxamide (-CONH) VFCA –I to VII. Compounds VFCA –I to VII screened for their antibacterial study and they shows potent antibacterial activity.…

    • 1444 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Use of microbial platform overexpressing such an ideal O-methyltransferase having flexibility in its catalytic activity over different classes of substrates is of great importance in producing variety of methylated natural products. With this concept, we used the aforementioned natural compounds as substrate for biotransformation reaction. Culture of recombinant E. coli strain was prepared and induced as explained in materials and method. In vivo reaction mixtures analysis of different substrates revealed the presence of methylated product in each reaction mixtures except naringenin and quercetin. Prominent single product peak was detected in case of 7,8-DHF (product retention time (tR) of 20.7 min, substrate peak was detected at tR 18.8 min)…

    • 986 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Despite the ambiguity in deprotonation of a serine residue, Zn(II) ion at M2 position then stimulates Ser102 to attack the phosphorus center of the substrate to initiate the leaving of an alcohol group and to form a phosphoseryl intermediate. This intermediate resembles E-Pi, an enzyme-phosphate complex, in Figure 2 and…

    • 2173 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Trypsin is also known to act on itself resulting in both active and inactive forms of trypsin during storage (Sugumaran). In this experiment, affinity chromatography was used to extrapolate the active form of trypsin from the inactive form of trypsin. A column containing P-amino-bezaidine was used to form a bond with the active form of trypsin in the matrix (Sugumaran). Two assays were performed. The first assay was to determine if there was any active trypsin by employing Benyzol-DL-arginie-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), which forms an observable yellow color (from p-nitroaniline) when cleaved by active trypsin.…

    • 2097 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Because of the chemical inertness of MWCNTs, it is essential to create reactive groups on the surface for further modification [15]. The carboylic groups on the MWCNTs provide ideal anchoring point for the covalent immobilization of enzyme using EDC/NHS [15]. It has been demonstrated that sonicating MWCNTs in a mixture of acid solution opens the tube caps and forms carboxylic groups at the defect sites along the side walls [36]. Fig. 1 shows the FTIR spectra of MWCNTs and acid-treated MWCNTs.…

    • 1600 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Compound 3b Lab Report

    • 889 Words
    • 4 Pages

    6-bromo quinazolinone derivatives bearing para chloro phenyl moiety at position 2 and substituted at 3rd position with 4-chalcone moiety bearing 4-choro phenyl 3b show remarkable antimicrobial, anti yeast and anti fungal activity . 4-chalcone moiety bearing 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl 3d show potent activity against Gram -ve bacteria. On the other hand 4-chalcone moiety having phenyl or furan-2-yl abolish antimicrobial activity but have potent anti yeast and anti fungal activity. While substitution with 4-nitrophenyl at the same position afford compound 3c with no antimicrobial or antifungal activity. Substituted at 3rd position with 5-phenyl- pyrazol or 1-acetyl-5-phenyl moiety give compound 4a, 5a respectively with promising anti yeast and anti fungal activity.…

    • 889 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Gram Catalase Test Report

    • 1163 Words
    • 5 Pages

    The reasons range from diagnosing a disease in a patient, so as to know how it can be handled and treated, to knowing the appropriate microorganism to be used for making certain foods or antibiotics. Also, it can lead to many new discoveries such as new species or evolution of new species. This study is done by applying all of the methods and techniques that have been learned and used in the microbiology laboratory for the identification of the unknown bacteria’s. In this experiment, multiple of tests were conducted to provide the fermentation abilities, existence of specific enzymes, and certain biochemical reactions. Observations obtained from the tests were compared to the unknown bacteria identification key help with the identification process.…

    • 1163 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays