C Perfringens Case Studies

Potter (2001) mentioned that C. perfringens spores may contaminate meat and meat products either before processing and survive cooking or after processing due to unhygienic handling of prepared food.
Adak et al. (2002) reported that deaths due to C. perfringens (type A) food poisoning are rare but may occur in the elderly and debilitated. It is estimated to kill seven people in the USA, and between 50 and 100 people in UK yearly.
Asha and Wilcox (2002) reported that the first C. perfringens gastrointestinal illness report was as a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) in 1984.
Brynestad and Granum (2002) mentioned that C. perfringens type A food poisoning is more common in the industrial world. This bacterium is also responsible for
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(2005) stated that food poisoning C. perfringens spores differed from those vegetative cells in respect to its heat resistance; where they can survive cooking at high temperature (100OC for >2h). Symptoms of C. perfringens gastro-intestinal illness in 646 cases from 10 districts of Kyushu between January 2000 and December 2004, which were diarrhea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, and headache, where the incubation period was (10.7 hr), with less common vomiting (22%).
Sayeed et al. (2005) mentioned that most C. perfringens (type D) isolates produce epsilon toxin. In case of IV injection into mice, neurotoxin distress was observed causing a rapid death.
Songer and Uzal (2005), Petit et al. (1999) mentioned that C. perfringens is classified into 5 toxinotypes (A, B, C, D, and E) according to production of four toxins, namely alpha (cpa), beta (cpb), epsilon (etx) and iota (itx). They added, several other toxins such as enterotoxin (cpe), beta 2 (cpb2) and perfringolysin O (pfo) also be produced by some strains of C. perfringens, but they are not currently used in the classification of this microorganism. Although all C. perfringens strains are pathogenic for animals, only type A and C strains are harmful to humans through production of enterotoxin (cpe); encoded by the cpe gene that is responsible for the food

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