Building Construction Essay
Related to the Fire Service
Chapter 1: Building Construction & Fire Service
The building variables that FF must consider: • Age of building – age in itself is not a hazard but an indication of potential hazards • Fire protection systems – first line of defense in a building • Occupancy of the building – often affects fire behavior…each occupancy has different hazards & fuels, and the structural components are subjected to different temperatures, heat release, & duration. • Fire/fuel loads – weight of combustibles per sq ft…can be used to determine the total heat release • Type of construction • Configuration – refers to a buildings general shape or layout • Access & exposures …show more content…
Fire resistance ratings for floor & ceiling assemblies are rated by both: • Restrained assemblies – affect the extent that an assembly may expand or rotate at its ends when exposed to high temperatures. • Unrestrained assemblies
Fire testing has been going on for years. In recent years, mathematical equations have been used to predict the behavior of materials at high temperatures. Building codes usually make use of fire-resistance ratings based on the standard test. Computer models can deal with more realistic fire behavior of materials than the traditional standard time & temperature test procedure.
Noncombustible material – in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors when subjected to fire or heat. The most commonly used test for determining combustibility is ASTM E 136, Standard Test Methods for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750º C.
NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, have 3-digit code designations: • 1st digit – rating of exterior bearing walls • 2nd digit – rating of structural frames or columns and girders that support loads of more than one floor. • 3rd digit – rating of floor construction.
Most codes will not allow a wood-frame school to be more